Pharmaceutical Policy and the Effects of the Economic Crisis: Estonia
(2011; 4 pages)


Estonia’s health care is mainly publicly funded through solidarity-based mandatory health insurance contributions in the form of an earmarked social payroll tax, which amounts to almost two thirds of total health care expenditures. The Ministry of Social Affairs (MoSA) is responsible for funding emergency care for the uninsured as well as for ambulance services and public health programmes. Municipalities have a relatively small, yet diverse role in health financing. Private expenditures comprise about one quarter of all health care expenditure, mostly through out-of-pocket payments (OOP) in the form of co-payments for pharmaceuticals and coverage of dental care...

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