WHO Model Prescribing Information: Drugs Used in Skin Diseases
(1997; 132 pages) [French] [Spanish] Voir le document au format PDF
Table des matières
Afficher le documentPreface
Afficher le documentIntroduction
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuParasitic infections
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuInsect and arachnid bites and stings
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuSuperficial fungal infections
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuSubcutaneous fungal infections
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuBacterial infections
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuViral infections
Fermer ce répertoireEczematous diseases
Afficher le documentContact dermatitis
Afficher le documentAtopic dermatitis
Afficher le documentSeborrhoeic dermatitis
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuScaling diseases
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuPapulosquamous diseases
Afficher le documentCutaneous reactions to drugs
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuPigmentary disorders
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuPremalignant lesions and malignant tumours
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuPhotodermatoses
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuBullous dermatoses
Afficher le documentAlopecia areata
Afficher le documentUrticaria
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuConditions common in children
Afficher le documentAcne vulgaris
Afficher le documentPruritus
Afficher le documentTropical ulcers
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuAntimicrobial drugs
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuAntifugal drugs
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuAntiseptic agents
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuKeratoplastic and keratolytic agents
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuScabicides and pediculicides
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuAnti-inflammatory and antipruritic drugs1
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuAntiallergics and drugs used in anaphylaxis
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuUltraviolet radiation-blocking agents (sunscreens)
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuMiscellaneous drugs
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuAnnex
Afficher le documentSelected WHO Publications of Related Interest
Afficher le documentBack cover
 

Contact dermatitis

Both irritants and allergens can induce contact dermatitis. Non-allergic dermatitis sometimes follows isolated exposure to a strong irritant or, more frequently, is induced by repeated exposure to less potent chemicals, including soaps, detergents and solvents. The skin becomes dry, inelastic, fissured and secondarily infected through breaches in the protective stratum corneum.

Allergic contact dermatitis is a form of delayed hypersensitivity. It is, in part, genetically determined and results from exposure of a previously sensitized individual to an allergen. A vesicular or bullous eruption usually first develops at the site of primary contact but the allergen is frequently transferred by the hands to other parts of the body. The margins of the affected areas are often unnaturally sharp and angular. Inflamed, damaged or diseased skin is especially vulnerable, whereas the scalp, the palms of the hands, and the soles of the feet are protected by the greater thickness of the stratum corneum.

Plants, dyes, nickel and other metals, rubber, cosmetics and topical medicines are all potential allergens. Causative agents may be identified by patch testing, but the correct interpretation of such tests may be difficult. Sensitization to a component of a topically applied medicine is not uncommon and should be suspected if dermatitis develops following the application of a topical agent.

Prevention and management

Emollient creams accelerate healing and barrier creams may offer protection in the workplace. Patients should not use abrasive soaps and they should avoid, as far as possible, exposure to irritant substances.

Hydrocortisone 1% ointments or creams are of value in suppressing inflammation. More potent topical corticosteroids can also be used, but may not offer any better efficacy since the condition is usually self-limiting. The use of a short course of oral prednisolone or prednisone to suppress severe acute reactions associated with blistering, exudation and oedema should be considered. The oral corticosteroid can be given in successively lower doses over a 2-week period. Consultation with a dermatologist, if one is available, should be considered.

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Le Portail d'information - Médicaments essentiels et produits de santé a été conçu et est maintenu par l'ONG Human Info. Dernière mise à jour: le 1 décembre 2019