Global Plan for Artemisinin Resistance Containment (GPARC)
(2011; 93 pages)


The goal of the GPARC is to protect ACTs as an effective treatment for P. falciparum malaria. The GPARC comes at a critical juncture. Artemisinin1 resistance has been confirmed in a limited area within the Greater Mekong subregion, and evidence from other potential foci in this region is being reviewed. Experts agree that there is a limited window of opportunity to contain or eliminate the resistant parasites before they spread to areas of higher transmission, putting at risk recent progress in malaria control. The urgency is increased by the fact that no other antimalarial medicines are available that offer the same level of efficacy and tolerability as ACTs, and few promising alternatives are available in the immediate research and development pipeline. While efforts to contain and prevent artemisinin resistance at global and local levels have begun, they are not sufficient and must be expanded, intensified and better coordinated.

The GPARC is intended to mobilize global and local stakeholders for the containment and ultimate elimination of artemisinin resistance where it has emerged and for the prevention of its emergence in or spread to new locations. While economic development, improvements to health systems, and integrated efforts to improve maternal and child health, will also improve management of malaria and resistance, these activities are beyond the scope of this document. The objectives of the GPARC are to:

  • define priorities for the containment and prevention of artemisinin resistance;
  • motivate action and describe responsibilities by constituency;
  • mobilize resources to fund the containment and prevention of artemisinin resistance;
  • increase collaboration and coordination for artemisinin resistance containment and prevention among relevant stakeholders; and
  • define governance mechanisms and indicators for continual assessment of progress made in implementing the GPARC.

The GPARC was developed by the WHO Global Malaria Programme through consultation with over 100 malaria experts. The GPARC builds on a WHO Global Malaria Programme Strategy paper on management of antimalarial drug resistance presented at the Seventeenth RBM Board meeting in December 2009. As many of the activities involved in containing and preventing artemisinin resistance are consistent with good malaria control, the GPARC also builds on existing WHO policies and guidelines for malaria and on the RBM Global Malaria Action Plan. The GPARC is not a synthesis of the literature on malaria control, but addresses the additional actions needed to prevent artemisinin resistance. It does not represent policy or technical guidance but is rather a call to action and a high-level plan of attack. For technical guidance in making an operational plan, including country-specific operational goals and timelines, national malaria control programmes should refer to the WHO guidelines for malaria control and elimination available on the WHO Global Malaria Programme website and can consult their regional offices for assistance and support (

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