Measuring Transparency in the Public Pharmaceutical Sector. Assessment Instrument
(2009; 196 pages)


The World Bank has identified corruption as the single greatest obstacle to social and economic development, keeping millions of people trapped in poverty. Labelled a "cancer" by the same organization, it is a cross‐sectoral problem affecting the public and private sectors alike. It also represents a gross departure from fundamental ethical standards.

As mentioned, the pharmaceutical sector is particularly vulnerable to corruption and unethical practices. The commercial reality of the pharmaceutical market tempts the many different public as well as private ‐ actors involved. The pernicious effects of corruption arise not only from intentional mismanagement by an individual, but also from an inability to identify and ethically manage the conflicts of interest that can occur when institutions and individuals with authority interact. There is also a failure from an organizational position to institutionalize procedures that will prevent corrupt behaviour...

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