Integrating Public Health Concerns into Patent Legislation in Developing Countries
(2000; 140 pages) [French] [Spanish] Ver el documento en el formato PDF
Índice de contenido
Ver el documentoTHE SOUTH CENTRE
Ver el documentoFOREWORD
Ver el documentoACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Ver el documentoGLOSSARY*
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoI. INTRODUCTION
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoII. PATENTABLE SUBJECT MATTER
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoIII. SCOPE OF CLAIMS
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoIV. PATENTABILITY REQUIREMENTS
Cerrar esta carpetaV. SPECIAL CASES IN PHARMACEUTICALS
Ver el documentoV.1 Selection Patents
Ver el documentoV.2 Prior Public Availability
Ver el documentoV.3 Polymorphism
Ver el documentoV.4 Analogy processes
Ver el documentoV.5 Compositions
Ver el documentoV.6 Optical Isomers
Ver el documentoV.7 Active Metabolites
Ver el documentoV.8 Prodrugs
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoVI. DISCLOSURE
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoVII. EXCEPTIONS TO EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoVIII. EXAMINATION AND OBSERVATION PROCEDURES
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoIX. CLAIMS INTERPRETATION
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoX. COMPULSORY LICENSING
Ver el documentoXI. FINAL REMARKS
Ver el documentoREFERENCES
Ver el documentoBACK COVER
 

V.6 Optical Isomers

A special case takes place when a compound is an optically active enantiomer110 of a compound previously known only in racemic form. While some patent offices, such as EPO, have ruled that such enantiomers may be deemed novel, the existence of inventive step has been denied, since it is obvious that in such types of molecules optically active forms can exist and it is routine to test whether one or the other enantiomers in isolation is more active than the mixture of both (“racemic mixture”). Today, it is generally accepted that one optical isomer will typically have much higher activity than the other, so that superior activity for at least one of the isomers as compared to the racemate is to be expected111.

110 Enantiomers are chemical compounds which behave in relation to one another as an image does to its mirror image. In organic chemistry, enantiomers occur for example in compounds which comprise a carbon atom with four different substituents. See, e.g., Hansen and Hirsch, 1997, p. 113. It is estimated that over a quarter of known pharmaceuticals present that property. See, e.g., Cook, Doyle and Jabbari, 1991, p. 84.

111 See, e.g., Grubb, 1999, p. 199-200; Hansen and Hirsch, 1997, p. 113-118.

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