Integrating Public Health Concerns into Patent Legislation in Developing Countries
(2000; 140 pages) [French] [Spanish] Ver el documento en el formato PDF
Índice de contenido
Ver el documentoTHE SOUTH CENTRE
Ver el documentoFOREWORD
Ver el documentoGLOSSARY*
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoI. INTRODUCTION
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoII. PATENTABLE SUBJECT MATTER
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoIII. SCOPE OF CLAIMS
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoIV. PATENTABILITY REQUIREMENTS
Ver el documentoV.1 Selection Patents
Ver el documentoV.2 Prior Public Availability
Ver el documentoV.3 Polymorphism
Ver el documentoV.4 Analogy processes
Ver el documentoV.5 Compositions
Ver el documentoV.6 Optical Isomers
Ver el documentoV.7 Active Metabolites
Ver el documentoV.8 Prodrugs
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoVI. DISCLOSURE
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoVII. EXCEPTIONS TO EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoVIII. EXAMINATION AND OBSERVATION PROCEDURES
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoIX. CLAIMS INTERPRETATION
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoX. COMPULSORY LICENSING
Ver el documentoXI. FINAL REMARKS
Ver el documentoREFERENCES
Ver el documentoBACK COVER

V.1 Selection Patents

A “selection patent” is a patent under which a single element or a small segment within a large known group is “selected” and independently claimed, based on a particular feature not mentioned in the large group96. If the large group of elements is already patented97, the patent owner may use the selection patent to extend the term of protection beyond the expiration of the original patent, at least for the selected subset. While accepted in some jurisdictions when the selected elements possess a surprising advantage, selection patents have been denied when the supposed advantage is a property shared by all or nearly all of the large group. Germany has refused selection inventions by holding that disclosure of even a large group of elements is fully equivalent, for the purposes of inventive step, to the disclosure of each compound within the group98.

96 A “selection invention” may take place, for instance, when a range of products characterized as having N carbon atoms has been patented, and, later on, a patent on a specific range (e.g. C1-C4) is claimed. Substantial differences exist in the treatment of these patents, including between the European Patent Office (EPO) and some national offices in Europe.

97 Often broad (“generic”) patent claims are admitted, covering a large number (sometimes thousands) of possible compounds.

98 See, e.g., Grubb, 1999, p. 197-199.

An important policy issue is, therefore, to decide whether and under which conditions selection patents should be admitted. The TRIPs Agreement leaves broad discretion to national laws and practices in this area.

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