How to Investigate Drug Use in Health Facilities: Selected Drug Use Indicators - EDM Research Series No. 007
(1993; 92 pages) [French] [Spanish] View the PDF document
Table of Contents
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1: Overview
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2: Core drug use indicators
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 3: Study design and sample size
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 4: Planning and field methods
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 5: Analysis and reporting
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 6: Follow up questions
Close this folderAnnexes
View the documentAnnex 1: Sampling procedures
View the documentAnnex 2: Data collection forms
View the documentAnnex 3: Examples of earlier studies
View the documentAnnex 4: Using the indicators for monitoring
View the documentAnnex 5: Complementary drug use indicators
View the documentAnnex 6: References
 

Annex 3: Examples of earlier studies

Country

YEM

UGA

SUD

MAL

IND

BAN

ZIM

TAN

NIG

NEP

ECU

 

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

Date

3/88

9/90

5/91

6/91

7/91

8/91

7/91

2/92

2/92

5/92

10/92

No. of facilities

19

42

37

72

20

20

56

20

20

20

19

Indicator

                     

No. of drugs per prescription

1.5

1.9

1.4

1.8

3.3

1.4

1.3

2.2

3.8

2.1

1.3

% Antibiotics

46%

56%

63%

34%

43%

31%

29%

39%

48%

43%

27%

% Injectables

25%

48%

36%

19%

17%

0.2%

11%

29%

37%

5%

17%

% Generics

   

63%

 

59%

 

94%

82%

58%

44%

37%

% EDL drugs

             

88%

 

86%

 

Consultation time (min)

     

2.3

3

   

3.0

6.3

3.5

 

Dispensing time (sec)

             

77.8

12.5

86.1

 

% Knowledge of dosage

     

27%

82%

63%

 

75%

81%

56%

 

% Drugs dispensed

               

70%

83%

 

% Drugs in stock

     

67%

     

72%

62%

90%

38%

% Impartial information

                 

40%

 

(1) Hogerzeil HV, Walker GJA, Sallami AO, Fernando G. Impact of an essential drugs program on availability and rational use of drugs. Lancet 1989; (i): 141-142.

(2) Christensen RF. A strategy for the improvement of prescribing and drug use in rural health facilities in Uganda. Uganda Essential Drugs Management Programme; 2 September - 11 October 1990.

(3) Bannenberg WJ, Forshaw CJ, Fresle D, Salami AO, Wahab HA. Evaluation of the Nile Province essential drugs project. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1991. WHO/DAP/91.10.

(4) Gelders SFAM. Malawi essential drugs programme drug use indicator survey 1991. Geneva: World Health Organization, Action Programme on Essential Drugs, 1992.

(5) Bimo. Field testing of drug use indicators of INRUD: report of a field trip to Indonesia, Bangladesh, and Nepal, June-July 1991.

(6) Ministry of Health/Zimbabwe Essential Drugs Action Programme. Essential Drugs Survey, 1991.

(7) Ofori-Adjei D. Report on Tanzania field test. INRUD News 1992; 3(1): 9.

(8) Bimo. Report on Nigeria field test. INRUD News 1992; 3(1): 9-10.

(9) Kafle KK and members of INRUD Nepal Core Group. INRUD drug use indicators in Nepal: practice patterns in health posts in four districts. INRUD News 1992; 3(1): 15.

(10) Sallet JP, Van Ommen AM. Ecuador field test of the pharmaceutical management indicators matrix. Work carried out under the USAID/LAC Health and Sustainability Project. Draft report October 1992.

Examples of bar charts showing facilities by indicator value


FACILITY-SPECIFIC PERCENT RECEIVING ANTIBIOTICS


FACILITY-SPECIFIC AVERAGE CONSULTATION TIME

Tanzania Indicators Field Test 1992

Examples of bar charts showing variability of facilities


SAMPLE-WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF ANTIBIOTIC USE


PERCENTAGE ANTIBIOTIC USE SAMPLE-WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF CONSULTING TIMES

Tanzania Indicators Field Test 1992

to previous section
to next section
 
 
The WHO Essential Medicines and Health Products Information Portal was designed and is maintained by Human Info NGO. Last updated: December 1, 2019