WHO Model Prescribing Information: Drugs Used in Skin Diseases
(1997; 132 pages) [French] [Spanish] View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentPreface
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsParasitic infections
Open this folder and view contentsInsect and arachnid bites and stings
Open this folder and view contentsSuperficial fungal infections
Open this folder and view contentsSubcutaneous fungal infections
Open this folder and view contentsBacterial infections
Open this folder and view contentsViral infections
Open this folder and view contentsEczematous diseases
Open this folder and view contentsScaling diseases
Open this folder and view contentsPapulosquamous diseases
View the documentCutaneous reactions to drugs
Open this folder and view contentsPigmentary disorders
Open this folder and view contentsPremalignant lesions and malignant tumours
Open this folder and view contentsPhotodermatoses
Open this folder and view contentsBullous dermatoses
View the documentAlopecia areata
View the documentUrticaria
Open this folder and view contentsConditions common in children
View the documentAcne vulgaris
View the documentPruritus
View the documentTropical ulcers
Open this folder and view contentsAntimicrobial drugs
Open this folder and view contentsAntifugal drugs
Open this folder and view contentsAntiseptic agents
Open this folder and view contentsKeratoplastic and keratolytic agents
Open this folder and view contentsScabicides and pediculicides
Open this folder and view contentsAnti-inflammatory and antipruritic drugs1
Close this folderAntiallergics and drugs used in anaphylaxis
View the documentChlorphenamine
View the documentAlternative antihistamines
View the documentEpinephrine
Open this folder and view contentsUltraviolet radiation-blocking agents (sunscreens)
Open this folder and view contentsMiscellaneous drugs
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex
View the documentSelected WHO Publications of Related Interest
View the documentBack cover
 

Epinephrine

Injection, 1 mg (as hydrogen tartrate) in 1-ml ampoule

General information

Epinephrine is a sympathomimetic agent that activates both α- and β-adrenoreceptors. It is secreted together with norepinephrine by the adrenal medulla in response to stress. Activation of the α-adrenoreceptors increases the blood pressure and induces peripheral vasoconstriction, while activation of the β-adrenoreceptors induces bronchodilatation and increases cardiac inotropic activity.

Clinical information

Uses

Treatment of anaphylactic shock.

Dosage and administration

Adults and children: all patients requiring this form of therapy should receive an immediate i.m. injection of 0.5-1.0 ml of epinephrine, 1:1000 solution. Cardiac arrhythmias and hypertension are likely to occur if more than 2 ml is administered within any 5-minute period. When the circulatory response is transient, use of a plasma expander should be considered.

Precautions

There are no absolute contraindications to the use of epinephrine in this potentially life-saving situation. However, it should be used with particular caution in patients with hypertension, atherosclerotic heart disease, cerebral vascular insufficiency, heart block, thyrotoxicosis or diabetes, who are vulnerable to severe and unpredictable changes in blood pressure during treatment.

Drug interactions

The risk of cardiac dysrhythmias is increased when epinephrine is administered to patients receiving a digitalis glycoside, quinidine, a tricyclic antidepressant or a thyroid hormone.

Overdosage

Acute hypertensive crises and life-threatening dysrhythmias may be controlled by propranolol or other β-adrenoreceptor blocking agents.

Storage

Ampoules should be stored protected from light.

 

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