Tributyltin compounds / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organizaton ; first draft prepared by S. Dobson
AbstractEvaluates risks to human health and the environment posed by the use of tributyltin compounds as molluscicides, as antifoulants on boats, ships, quays, buoys, and equipment in the fishing industry, as wood preservatives, and as slimicides on masonry. Tributyltin compounds are also used as biocides for cooling systems, power station cooling towers, pulp and paper mills, textile mills, and breweries. These compounds pose a particular threat to the marine environment in view of their documented high toxicity to aquatic organisms, including commercially important shellfish. A discussion of sources of environmental exposure concentrates on various national bans and restrictions introduced following evidence that use of these compounds in antifouling paints was responsible for a complete failure of the French oyster industry in the late 1970s. The review also notes that concentrations exceeding those producing acute lethal effects have been found worldwide in many different locations, most frequently associated with pleasure boating activities. Toxic effects on organisms in the environment are thoroughly evaluated in separate chapters dealing with algae and other micro-organisms, aquatic organisms, and terrestrial organisms. Tributyl compounds are observed to be toxic to microorganisms and highly toxic to oysters, mussels, and other marine molluscs consumed by humans. A review of field observations, which are in good agreement with laboratory findings, confirms the association between use of these compounds in the marine environment and mortality, malformations, and population decline of molluscs. The remaining sections evaluate findings from experimental studies and observations in occupationally exposed humans. The book concludes that tributyltin compounds are a severe irritant to human skin and an extreme irritant to the eye, and that inhalation of aerosols can have especially hazardous effects on the respiratory trac. Despite the large body of studies documenting toxicity, the book was unable to quantify the risk to humans posed by the consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish
Dobson, Stuart, World Health Organization & International Programme on Chemical Safety. (1990). Tributyltin compounds / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organizaton ; first draft prepared by S. Dobson. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/39860
Environmental health criteria ; 116
DescriptionTranslation in French and Spanish of chapters 1, 13, and 14
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