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dc.contributor.authorWorld Health Organizationen
dc.contributor.authorUnited Nations Environment Programmeen
dc.descriptionPublished by the World Health Organization in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programmeen
dc.description78 p.en
dc.description.abstractAn analysis of what conditions in urban slums and squatter settlements mean in terms of the lives and deaths of millions of poor children. Drawing upon over 100 reports of research and field investigations, the book uses facts, figures, case reports and illustrative examples to document the realities of slum conditions, explain their direct impact on health, and point out lines of remedial action. Throughout the book, readers are challenged to face both the magnitude of the problem and the inadequacy of conventional measures for dealing with it. The book opens with an alert to the severity of problems created by the rapid growth of densely populated, predominantly low-income settlements in Third World cities. Readers are reminded that almost half of today's Third World population lives in conditions of extreme poverty, that governments can no longer cope with the need for basic housing and services, and that the resulting living conditions put millions of infants and children at risk of easily preventable diseases. Data on current trends in urban growth are used to show that the problem will not go away, while facts about the links between slum conditions and the incidence of disease, accidents, and death portray the future facing urban children. Against this background, the book turns to an analysis of living conditions in urban centres and the types of health problems they create. A discussion of three major types of pathology associated with urban poverty is followed by facts and figures about the lack of access to safe water and sanitation, the extent of exposure to air and water pollution, the burden of infectious diseases and malnutrition associated with poverty, and the added range of chronic and social diseases imposed by urbanization. The second chapter, focused on housing and health conditions, explores the ways in which people in lower-income groups find somewhere to live in urban centres. Details range from a classification of housing sub-markets according to type of tenure and legal status to an explanation of why dangerous or polluted sites are so often deliberately chosen. Readers also learn why even a rudimentary level of environmental health cannot be achieved without public investment in the essential infrastructure and services. The remaining chapters concentrate on policies and actions needed to improve the situation, arguing that an alliance between local government and neighbourhood organizations is the most promising and cost-effective approach for government action. A chapter devoted to the role of neighbourhood organizations uses three case studies from Latin America to show how health problems have been effectively tackled by community groups. The book concludes with an outline of tasks facing governments and aid agencies and a reminder that the vast scale of ill health and premature death in urban centres demands urgent actionen
dc.publisherWorld Health Organization
dc.publisherWorld Health Organization
dc.subject.meshUrban healthen
dc.subject.meshPoverty areasen
dc.subject.meshChild health servicesen
dc.subject.meshChild developmenten
dc.subject.meshEnvironmental healthen
dc.subject.meshDeveloping countriesen
dc.subject.otherEnvironment and Public Healthen
dc.titleUrbanization and its implications for child health : potential for actionen
dc.title.alternativeUrbanización y sus repercusiones en la salud infantil : posibilidades de acciónen
dc.title.alternativeL' Urbanisation et ses incidences sur la santé de l' enfant : possibilités d' actionen

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