Tajikistan: health system review
AbstractThe pace of health reforms in Tajikistan has been slow and in many aspects the health system is still shaped by the country’s Soviet legacy. The country has the lowest total health expenditure per capita in the WHO European Region, much of it financed privately through out-of-pocket payments. Public financing depends principally on regional and local authorities, thus compounding regional inequalities across the country. The high share of private out-of-pocket payments undermines a range of health system goals, including financial protection, equity, efficiency and quality. The efficiency of the health system is also undermined by outdated provider payment mechanisms and lack of pooling of funds. Quality of care is another major concern, due to factors such as insufficient training, lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines, underuse of generic drugs, poor infrastructure and equipment (particularly at the regional level) and perverse financial incentives for physicians in the form of out-of-pocket payments. Health reforms have aimed to strengthen primary health care, but it still suffers from underinvestment and low prestige. A basic benefit package and capitation-based financing of primary health care have been introduced as pilots but have not yet been rolled out to the rest of the country. The National Health Strategy envisages substantial reforms in health financing, including nationwide introduction of capitation-based payments for primary health care and more than doubling public expenditure on health by 2020; it remains to be seen whether this will be achieved.
Khodjamurodov, G; Sodiqova, D; Akkazieva, B and Rechel, B & European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. (2016). Tajikistan: health system review. World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/330246
Health Systems in Transition;vol. 18, n. 1
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