Finland: health system review
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AbstractThis analysis of the Finnish health system reviews developments in its organization and governance, financing, provision of services, health reforms and health system performance. Finland is a welfare state with a high standard of social and living conditions and a low poverty rate. Its health system has a highly decentralized administration, multiple funding sources, and three provision channels for statutory services in first-contact care: the municipal system, the national health insurance system, and occupational health care. The core health system is organized by the municipalities (i.e. local authorities) which are responsible for financing primary and specialized care. Health financing arrangements are fragmented, with municipalities, the health insurance system, employers and households all contributing substantial shares. The health system performs relatively well, as health services are fairly effective, but accessibility may be an issue due to long waiting times and relatively high levels of cost sharing. For over a decade, there has been broad agreement on the need to reform the Finnish health system, but reaching a feasiblepolicy consensus has been challenging.
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe, European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Keskimäki, Ilmo, Tynkkynen, Liina-Kaisa, Reissell, Eeva. et al. (2019). Finland: health system review. World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/327538
Health Systems in Transition, vol. 21 (2)