Now showing items 1-13 of 13

    • Financial and operational factors influencing the provision of municipal solid waste services in large cities : report / prepared by Colin Macfarlane; coordinated by Philip Rushbrook 

      Macfarlane, Colin; Rushbrook, Philip; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (‎EUR/ICP/ENHA 01 01 01, 1998)‎
      The management of urban solid waste is one of a number of essential public services provided directly or on behalf of local government. The allocated funding reflects both the need and the relative importance perceived by the public to be attached to each service. In low-income countries, the urban public is often apathetic about waste service, though, by its nature, it typically consumes a substantial proportion of urban revenues to provide even a bare minimum level of services. Local governments are loath to augment taxes to improve services ...
    • Guidance on minimum approaches for improvements to existing municipal waste dumpsites 

      Rushbrook, Philip; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; European Centre for Environment and Health (‎EUR/01/5021815, 2001)‎
      The guidance presented in this report is intended to specify, in physical and quantitative ways, the steps that municipalities and others agencies should follow to move from uncontrolled, open dumping of solid wastes to more controlled intermediate practices. Each aspect of disposal site development and operation has been given a measurable minimum standard, which, if achieved, could be regarded as achieving improved operations to the level of 'controlled dumping'. This is the second stage in the widely acknowledged four-stage development path ...
    • Health effects from landfills : impact of the latest research : report on a WHO meeting, Bilthoven, Netherlands 22 October 1998 

      World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (‎EUR/ICP/EHBI 01 04 02, 1998)‎
      The meeting was convened to present the available scientific evidence on the health effects of waste disposal in landfills and to determine the implications for public health policy and for landfill operators. Representatives of national and local governments, of the waste-processing industry and of scientists involved in evaluating the effects in Europe and the United States participated in the discussion. The meeting concluded that present data do add to a suspicion that population exposure to emissions from hazardous wastes may pose a risk to ...
    • Methods of assessing risk to health from exposure to hazards released from waste landfills 

      World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (‎EUR/00/5026441, 2000)‎
    • Municipal solid waste management in middle- and lower-income countries : report 

      World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (‎EUR/ICP/TECH 02 02 01, 1996)‎
      Most major cities in middle and lower-income countries face increasing difficulties in solid waste management. Energetic change stems from a strong public desire for improvements in social and economic wellbeing and in public health protection. While uncollected waste presents the greater hazard. a poor history of waste disposal provides the simpler focal political issue. The acquisition of new disposal sites is becoming as protracted in many middle- and lower-income countries as it is in many prosperous nations. Waste service and improvements ...
    • Population health and waste management : scientifc data and policy options 

      World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (‎EUR/07/5067981, 2007)‎
    • Solid waste and health / principal adviser, Maggie Thurgood 

      Thurgood, Maggie; Bonnefoy, Xavier; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (‎1995)‎
      Most human activities create waste. The majority of those wastes are not, in themselves, a potential threat to health but their correct management can help to minimise or avoid associated risks. There is no single "correct" way to collect, handle and dispose of wastes, but rather a range of options. These must be tailored to local circumstances, such as the amount and type of waste, regional geology and climate, and economic conditions. Local authorities must encourage the minimisation of both the quantity and toxicity of waste as an important ...
    • Urban agriculture in St Petersburg, Russian Federation : past, present and future perspectives / conducted by the Urban Gardening Club 

      World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (‎EUR/00/5014688, 2000)‎
      Serious ecological problems in the urban environment are common to most big cities around the world. In Russia these problems are aggravated by industrial development and lack of government funding for ecological improvement. Key facts are male life expectancy estimated at 58 in 1997 and existing environmental hazards. In addition to poor environmental conditions, most people suffer from a lack of basic food. In St Petersburg the amount of vegetables per citizen is 5 times lower than in the central districts and 2 times lower in peripheral ones. ...
    • Waste collection / principal adviser : Juha Kaila 

      Kaila, Juha; Bonnefoy, Xavier; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (‎1995)‎
      An efficient and comprehensive waste collection system is essential to protect the health of the population. The entire waste management plan for a city or region depends on the standard of the collection service. A modern well-managed waste collection and transport system not only protects the general public from disease but is also safe and hygienic for everyone working in, or in connection with, the system. This includes waste generators; collection, transport, and treatment personnel; children and scavengers; and indirectly all inhabitants ...
    • Waste incineration / principal advisers : Jorgen Haukohl and Torben Kristiansen 

      Haukohl, Jorgen; Kristiansen, Torben; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (‎1996)‎
      The incineration of waste is an hygienic method of reducing its volume and weight which also reduces its potential to pollute. Not all wastes are suitable for combustion. Residues from incineration processes must still be landfilled, as must the non-combustible portion of the waste stream, so incineration alone cannot provide a complete waste disposal solution. Generating electricity or producing hot water or steam as a by-product of the incineration process has the dual advantages of displacing energy generated from finite fossil fuels and ...
    • Waste minimisation / by Maggie Thurgood 

      Thurgood, Maggie; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (‎1996)‎
    • Городское огородничество в Санкт-Петербурге, Российская Федерация 

      Всемирная организация здравоохранения. Европейское региональное бюро (‎EUR/00/5014688, 2000-04)‎
      Серьезные экологические проблемы в городской среде обитания присущи большинству мегаполисов крупных городов во всем мире. В России эти проблемы усугубляются особенностями промышленного развития и нехваткой правительственного финансирования деятельности по улучшению состояния окружающей среды. Ключевыми факторами при этом являются ожидаемая продолжительность жизни мужчин, составлявшая 58 лет в 1997г., и экологические условия, представляющие опасность для здоровья. Помимо неблагоприятной окружающей среды, большинство населения городов страдает и ...
    • Здоровье населения и управление отходами : научные данные и варианты политики 

      Всемирная организация здравоохранения. Европейское региональное бюро (‎E-91021, 2007)‎