Background Papers
As part of the process for developing the annual report, the Board commissions review papers from world experts and leading institutions that explore the challenges of preparedness through various lenses. The Board draws on these papers and other data to identify areas where preparedness efforts are working and where they are faltering. These reports were produced independently and their conclusions do not represent the views of the Board. Links to the reports are below

A World in Disorder: 2020 Background papers
Governance Preparedness: Initial Lessons from COVID-19
Georgetown University
The Global Governance of Access to Countermeasures
Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies
Building Trust Within and Across Communities for Health Emergency Preparedness
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and UNICEF
Urbanization and Preparedness for Outbreaks with High-Impact Respiratory Pathogens
Norwegian Institute of Public Health
The R&D Preparedness Ecosystem: Preparedness for Health Emergencies
US National Academy of Medicine

A World at Risk: 2019 Background papers
The state of governance and coordination for health emergency preparedness and response
University of Oxford & Chatham House
Thematic Paper on the Status of Country Preparedness Capacities
World Health Organization
Advancing epidemic R&D to keep up with a changing world: progress, challenges and opportunities
Wellcome Trust
Pandemic Preparedness Financing, Status Update
World Bank Group
From words to action: Towards a community-centered approach to preparedness and response in health emergencies
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
Preparedness for a High-Impact Respiratory Pathogen Pandemic
Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security
From “never again” to the “new normal”: What does the 2018–2019 Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo tell us about the state of global epidemic and pandemic preparedness and response?
Independent Oversight and Advisory Committee for the WHO Health Emergencies Programme