Background Papers
As part of the process for developing the annual report, the Board commissioned seven review papers from world experts and leading institutions that explore the challenges of preparedness through various lenses: governance and coordination; country preparedness capacities; research and development; financing; enhancing community engagement and trust; preparing for and managing the fallout of a high-impact respiratory pathogen pandemics; and, lessons learned and persistent gaps revealed by recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in Africa. The Board has drawn on these papers and other data to identify areas where preparedness efforts are working and where they are faltering. These reports were produced independently and their conclusions do not represent the views of the Board. Links to the reports are below.

The state of governance and coordination for health emergency preparedness and response
University of Oxford & Chatham House
Thematic Paper on the Status of Country Preparedness Capacities
World Health Organization
Advancing epidemic R&D to keep up with a changing world: progress, challenges and opportunities
Wellcome Trust
Pandemic Preparedness Financing, Status Update
World Bank Group
From words to action: Towards a community-centered approach to preparedness and response in health emergencies
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
Preparedness for a High-Impact Respiratory Pathogen Pandemic
Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security
From “never again” to the “new normal”: What does the 2018–2019 Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo tell us about the state of global epidemic and pandemic preparedness and response?
Independent Oversight and Advisory Committee for the WHO Health Emergencies Programme