Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUD), danazol and laparoscopic treatment are effective in controlling pain in women with endometriosis. In women with subfertility associated with endometriosis undergoing assisted reproduction, three-month treatment with GnRH analogues increased pregnancy rate. Laparoscopic surgery was better than diagnostic laparoscopy alone in terms of pregnancy rate and live birth.
In women with polycystic ovary syndrome, treatment with letrozole (an aromatase inhibitor) appears to yield higher live birth and pregnancy rates than clomiphene citrate. However, letrozole did not appear to be better than laparoscopic ovarian drilling.
Skin-to-skin care (Kangaroo Mother Care) appears to reduce pain safely in neonates undergoing painful medical procedures. However, the magnitude of pain reduction was small, with the effect lasting for a short duration.