Cardiotocography (CTG) for fetal monitoring during labour reduces short-term neonatal adverse outcomes, but is expensive and over-diagnoses fetal distress. Adding fetal pulse oxymetry (PO) to CTG did not help to reduce unnecessary caesarean sections (CS). Fetal assessment in low-resource settings depends mainly on a Pinard stethoscope or hand-held doptone ‘auscultation’, and simplified clinical fetal arousal tests.
Routine prophylactic antibiotics for caesarean section reduced the risk of wound infection, endometritis and severe infection by 60% or more, whether given before or after cord clamping. Single dose prophylactic antibiotics after cord clamping can be used for all caesarean sections.
There is not yet sufficient evidence to support the adoption of urinary HPV testing for the presence of cervical HPV into routine clinical practice. It is a potentially accurate and non-invasive option, however this method requires further validation and standardization.
Individual, interpersonal, community and structural factors can act as both enablers and barriers to the initiation, adherence and retention of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV-infected pregnant women. Addressing these factors is crucial to implementing acceptable and effective ART programs that respond to women’s needs and perspectives.
There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the role of ambroxol in preventing neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in women at risk of pre-term birth. Further information is required regarding the benefits and risks of treatment.