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Group versus conventional antenatal care for women

Women’s satisfaction is significantly higher in women receiving group antenatal care compared to individual antenatal care. There were no significant differences in available perinatal outcomes.

Obstetric Consequences of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting

This review found that women with female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) are more likely to experience delivery complications compared to women without FGM/C. More prospective studies are required.

Antibiotic prophylaxis during the second and third trimester to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes and morbidity

There is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of antibiotics in the second and third trimesters to prevent infectious complications. However their use may reduce the risk of preterm delivery in selected patients, and may reduce the risk of postpartum infections.

Controlled cord traction for the third stage of labour

Controlled cord traction in the third stage of labour reduces mean blood loss and reduces the risk of the need for manual removal of the placenta.

Induction of labour in women with gestational diabetes

WHO does not recommend induction of labour before 41 weeks gestation when gestational diabetes is the only abnormality.

Tocolysis for management of retained placenta

This review found only one small trial of nitroglycerine in retained placenta to reduce the need of manual removal and blood loss in the third stage of labour. More trials are needed.

Interventions for preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women

There is insufficient evidence on specific interventions for preventing or reducing violence against women during pregnancy.

Routine perineal shaving on admission in labour

There is not enough evidence to support routine perineal shaving in women admitted in labour for reducing infection.

Imiquimod for anogenital warts in non-immunocompromised adults

The available research comparing imiquimod to placebo or other treatments for the treatment of anogenital warts is of very low quality. Further research is required to guide practice in this area.

Packages of care as active management to prevent delays in active labour

WHO does not recommend packages of care to prevent delays in active labour as clinical benefits do not clearly outweigh other considerations.

Delayed introduction of progressive enteral feeds to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants

Delaying the introduction of progressive enteral feeds for very low birth weight infants does not affect the risk of NEC or death. It delays the time until full enteral feeding is achieved; however, the clinical importance of this is not yet clear.

Search WHO guidelines on sexual and reproductive health



Health-care practice guidance from WHO and other institutions

Methodological resources

Methodological and education resources for improved understanding of the concepts and discussions related to generation of best evidence


A set of training videos to help clinicians master details of manual or surgical procedures

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RHL endorses the Core Outcomes in Women’s health (CROWN) initiative to harmonise outcome reporting in women’s health research.