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EMF Study
(Database last updated on May 22, 2009)

ID Number 121
Study Type Engineering & Physics
Model 900 & 1800 MHz (C,D & E-Net GSM) exposure on Cardiac Pacemakers and analysis of electromagnetic interference

231 different pacemaker models of 20 manufacturers were tested with the aid of an in vitro measuring set up, whether incompatibility with phones of the C-, D- and E-net may happen. If the pulse generator was interfered, a "maximum interference distance" was defined as the gap up to which interference happened. Out of 231 pulse generator models 106 pieces (45.9%) were interfered either by C- or D-net, if both are summed up. Seperated into C- or D-net interference the result is 30.7 % or 34.2 % respectively of all models tested. All models were resistant against the E-net. A distance of 25 cm was sufficient to guarantee integrity of the pacemaker with respect to mobile phones. Portables should have a distance of about half a meter. Start date October 1993, end date October 1994.

Findings Not Applicable to Bioeffects
Status Completed With Publication
Principal Investigator Justus-Liebig-Univ., FRG
Funding Agency FGF, Germany

FGF database ID# D3, FGF contract# 5929


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