- Tous > Public Health, Innovation, Intellectual Property and Trade > Technology Transfer and Local Production
(2011; 44 pages)
This report presents an overview of technology transfer and local production of vaccines in developing countries, and analyses emerging trends in this area and how technology transfer affects access to vaccines in developing countries.
Immunization is considered to be one of the greatest health interventions to prevent infectious diseases. According to World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) estimates, global immunization coverage of children is at least 80% for the six Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) vaccines, against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, measles and tuberculosis. However, there are huge inequalities in access to newer vaccines, such as Haemophilus influenzae B (Hib), rotavirus, pneumonia and human papilloma virus (HPV), between developed and developing countries. In addition, there are many poverty-related diseases for which vaccines do not exist, due to a lack of research and development (R&D) by industry. Technology transfer and local production can be an effective and sustainable strategy to address some of these issues, but they must be undertaken with planning and caution to ensure sustainability and success. This report examines past and current trends and models of technology transfer and local production for vaccines; identifies barriers, challenges and opportunities; and presents some points to take into consideration for the future.
To provide evidence of the barriers and drivers of technology transfer for vaccines, and the benefits that arise from this, WHO commissioned a survey of technology transfers that have taken place over the past two decades. This survey identified and analysed over 100 technology transfers and was supplemented by a workshop with stakeholders in late 2010 where case studies were presented and stakeholder views expressed.