In 1986, first antiretroviral therapy was introduced and the first drug was
Zidovudine (ZDV). Over the next few years, other antiretroviral drugs (NsRTIs,
NNRTIs) and PIs were introduced. Initially, mono and dual therapies were used
but there was problem of resistance. At present, 3 or more ARV drugs are
recommended worldwide for the treatment of people with HIV infection. Since the
use of combination therapy, this disease has been transformed into chronic
condition. However, the use of antiretroviral therapy is not all in all solution
in HIV/AIDS prevention and care program. The delivery of effective care and
antiretroviral treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS in poorest countries is
considered as an urgent priority and seems as a complement program to prevent
HIV transmission. Initially, antiretroviral therapy was very expensive and
unaffordable in most of developing countries. As drugs are increasingly
available at affordable cost, the development of guidelines on the appropriate
and rationale use of ART have been relevant in developing countries.
The current guidelines are intended basically for use by medical doctors who
use ARV therapy to the people infected with HIV/AIDS. Guidelines for the
treatment and management of HIV infection have been produced in a number of
countries in Europe, Australia, USA, India, Thailand, etc. and by WHO/UNAIDS.
While the guidelines attempt to represent the current state of knowledge, it is
inevitable that, as HIV/AIDS is a rapidly evolving medical field, new data will
change therapeutic choices and preferences...