(2008; 15 pages)
The principles of Traditional Mongolian Medicine (TMM) and a short history of this medical tradition as practised in the Republic of Mongolia are provided. TMM represents an Asian medical tradition which is greatly influenced by Tibetan Buddhism and which had flourished for centuries in regions inhabited by the Mongols. After the communist ideology had gained recognition in Outer Mongolia in the early 20th century, an introduction of Western medicine and a decline of TMM could be observed. The revival of TMM in the Republic of Mongolia in the second half of the last century led to increasing scientific investigations in this ancient medical system in the country. Joint studies with foreign academic institutions followed. The co-operations of Mongolian academic institutions with Austrian Universities regarding research in traditionally used medicinal plants are discussed and results of joint scientific projects are presented.