Drug Promotion - What We Know, What We Have Yet to Learn - Reviews of Materials in the WHO/HAI Database on Drug Promotion - EDM Research Series No. 032
(2004; 102 pages) Voir le document au format PDF
Table des matières
Afficher le documentAcknowledgements
Afficher le documentExecutive summary
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuIntroduction
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuReview 1. What attitudes do professional and lay people have to promotion?
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuReview 2. What impact does pharmaceutical promotion have on attitudes and knowledge?
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuReview 3. What impact does pharmaceutical promotion have on behaviour?
Fermer ce répertoireReview 4. What interventions have been tried to counter promotional activities, and with what results?
Afficher le document4.1 Guidelines, codes and regulations for printed and broadcast material
Afficher le document4.2. The ‘Fair Balance’ requirement
Afficher le document4.3 Guidelines for sales representatives
Afficher le document4.4 Guidelines for post-marketing surveillance
Afficher le document4.5 Guidelines on conflict of interest in research
Afficher le document4.6 Guidelines for package inserts and compendia
Afficher le document4.7 Guidelines about gifts
Afficher le document4.8 Guidelines for trainee doctors and for hospitals
Afficher le document4.9 Knowledge of these guidelines and their effect on attitudes
Afficher le document4.10 Education about promotion
Afficher le document4.11 Monitoring/countering promotion
Afficher le document4.12 Research as an intervention
Afficher le documentSummary of conclusions
Afficher le documentDirections for future research
Afficher le documentFinal conclusions
Afficher le documentReferences

4.7 Guidelines about gifts

In the USA, the American Medical Association has guidelines about gifts from the pharmaceutical industry incorporated in its Code of Ethics. These suggest that gifts to doctors should primarily benefit patients and should not be of substantial value. The American College of Physicians also suggests that a useful criterion for determining acceptability is whether doctors would “be willing to have these arrangements generally known”.

In Gibbons et al.’s study of attitudes to gifts from the pharmaceutical industry to doctors, only 62% of doctors were aware of any guideline about accepting gifts34. Awareness of a guideline was the only predictor of doctors reporting that gifts were not appropriate. However these are self report data, so those who knew about guidelines may have felt more social pressure to say that gifts were unacceptable.

Drug samples, although not intended as gifts to doctors, may in fact be used in this way. Westfall, McCabe and Nicholas124 found that in their family practice residency almost all staff, including medical practitioners, office staff etc had used samples provided by sales representatives for their personal or family use. The total retail cost of these was over US$10,000. As a result of their findings they instituted new controls over access to the medicine samples.

CONCLUSION: Not enough is known about the impact of guidelines for gifts to reach any conclusions.

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