National Policy on Traditional Medicine and Regulation of Herbal Medicines - Report of a WHO Global Survey
(2005; 168 pages) Voir le document au format PDF
Table des matières
Afficher le documentAcknowledgements
Afficher le documentExecutive summary
Afficher le documentAcronyms, abbreviations and definitions
Afficher le documentWHO Regions
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu1. Introduction
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu2. National policy on traditional medicine and complementary/alternative medicine
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu3. The regulatory situation of herbal medicines
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu4. Member States, WHO and herbal medicines
Fermer ce répertoire5. Country summaries
Afficher le document5.1 WHO African Region
Afficher le document5.2 WHO Region of the Americas
Afficher le document5.3 WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Afficher le document5.4 WHO European Region
Afficher le document5.5 WHO South-East Asia Region
Afficher le document5.6 WHO Western Pacific Region
Afficher le documentReferences
Afficher le documentAnnex 1. Text of survey instrument
 

5.3 WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region

Countries that responded to the survey: Eastern Mediterranean Region

Sixteen of the 22 countries of the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region responded to the Global Survey. Table 6 summarizes the development of national policy and regulation of TM/CAM and herbal medicines in the region, with comparative figures for all the responding countries and the global percentages. The figures and percentages represent those countries responding positively to the questions. The survey response figures represent all the responding countries, either in the region or globally, as indicated.

Table 6. WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region: positive responses

 

Member States in the Eastern Mediterranean Region responding positively with the following

Regional survey % that responded positively
(16)

Global survey % that responded positively
(141)

National policy on TM/CAM

5

31%

32%

Law or regulation on TM/CAM

8

50%

38%

National programme on TM/CAM

2

13%

28%

National office for TM/CAM

10

63%

53%

Expert committee on TM/CAM

8

50%

43%

National research institute on TM, CAM or herbal medicines

8

50%

41%

Law or regulation on herbal medicines

12

75%

65%

Registration of herbal medicines

12

75%

61%

Countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region demonstrate a strong commitment to research in TM/CAM and herbal medicines. There is also a high level of commitment to developing national policies on TM/CAM, especially for the regulation and registration of herbal medicines.

Afghanistan

In the Islamic State of Afghanistan, there is no national policy, law or regulation, national programme or national office for TM/CAM. Though there are currently no plans to establish a national policy or national programme, a law or regulation on TM/CAM is being developed. An expert committee for TM/CAM was established in 2002. No national research institutes exist for the study of TM/CAM or herbal medicines.

Afghanistan does not regulate herbal medicines. Herbal medicines are sold with claims: however, there is no information regarding the types of claims that may be made by law. Neither a national pharmacopoeia nor a national herbal monograph exist, and there are currently none in development. At present, no other monographs or pharmacopoeias are used in their place. The same GMP regulatory requirements apply to the manufacturing of herbal medicines as to conventional pharmaceuticals. Safety requirements include the same requirements as for conventional pharmaceuticals and special requirements, namely traditional use without demonstrated harmful effects and reference to documented scientific research on similar products. Neither the manufacturing nor the safety requirements are assured by any control mechanism. There is no registration system for herbal medicines and no herbal medicines are included in the national essential drug list. There is currently no post marketing surveillance system for herbal medicines: however, there are plans to establish one. In the Islamic State of Afghanistan, there are no restrictions on the sale of herbal products.

Bahrain

The Kingdom of Bahrain has not issued or established any of the following for TM/CAM: national policy, laws or regulations, a national programme, a national office, an expert committee or national research institutes.

Bahrain regulates herbal medicines using the same, or partly the same, legal framework as is used for conventional pharmaceuticals. Herbal medicines are regulated as dietary supplements, health foods and health products. Health and nutrient content claims are made about herbal medicines. The PDR for herbal medicines is used in place of a national pharmacopoeia, and is legally binding. No national monographs exist and no others are used.

Manufacturing regulatory requirements include adherence to information in pharmacopoeias and monographs and the same rules of GMP as for conventional pharmaceuticals. No control mechanism exists. Safety assessment requirements are those used for conventional pharmaceuticals and reference to documented scientific research on similar products. Again, no control mechanism is in place to ensure implementation of these requirements.

The registration system has registered 600 herbal medicines; herbal medicines are not included on an essential drug list. No post marketing surveillance system exists, or is being planned. In Bahrain, herbal medicine is sold in pharmacies as over the counter medicines and in special outlets.

Djibouti

There is currently no national policy, law or regulation, national programme or national office for TM/CAM in the Republic of Djibouti, nor are there any plans to establish these. Neither is there an expert committee or national research institute for the study of TM/CAM or herbal medicines. Herbal medicines are not regulated in Djibouti and have the regulatory status of self medication only. Herbal medicines are not sold with claims. There is neither a national pharmacopoeia nor a national monograph on herbal medicines, and neither is being developed. No other pharmacopoeia is currently being used. There is no information regarding the regulatory requirements for the manufacture or safety assessment of herbal medicines. There is no registration system for herbal medicines, and none are included on the national essential drug list. Currently, there is also no post marketing surveillance system for herbal medicines, nor any plans to establish one. There are no restrictions on the sale of herbal products in the Republic of Djibouti.

Egypt

In the Arab Republic of Egypt, national policy on TM/CAM is part of the national drug policy issued in 2001. Laws and regulations were first developed in 1955. A national programme is being developed. The National Centre for Medicinal Plants was established in 1995, and serves as the national office under the Ministry of Health. An expert committee on TM/CAM was established in 1992. National research institutes were established in 1994, including the National Applied Research Centre for Medicinal Plants established by the Ministry of Health in 1995 (Ministerial Decree No. 212) and operating within the National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR).

Herbal medicine regulation in Egypt began in 1955, and is achieved through the same laws as are used for conventional pharmaceuticals. Herbal medicines are regulated as prescription medicines, over the counter medicines, self medication and dietary supplements. Medical, health and nutrient content claims may be made by law. The Egyptian pharmacopoeia (1972, 1980) is the national pharmacopoeia, and contains monographs on herbal medicines; it is legally binding.

Regulatory requirements for manufacturing include adherence to information in pharmacopoeias and monographs, the same rules of GMP as for conventional pharmaceuticals and special GMP rules. Regulatory requirements for safety assessment are limited to reference to documented scientific research on similar products. Control mechanisms exist for both manufacturing and safety assessment requirements.

There are 600 registered herbal medicines. No herbal medicines are included on the national essential drug list. There is a post marketing surveillance system and a national system to monitor adverse events for herbal medicines. Both registration and quality control of herbal drugs must be performed in the laboratories of NODCAR.

In Egypt, herbal medicines are sold in pharmacies as over the counter and prescription medicines and by licensed practitioners. Annual market sales data (including local and export sales) were provided. In 2000, sales amounted to 34 million Egyptian pounds (US$ 5.54 million), in 2001 38 million Egyptian pounds (US$ 6.2 million), and in 2002, 44 million Egyptian pounds (US$ 7.2 million).

Islamic Republic of Iran

The Islamic Republic of Iran established its national policy on TM/CAM in 1996, and in that year laws and regulations were developed. No national programme currently exists. A national office for TM/CAM was established within the Ministry of Health in 1981 as the part of the Department of Pharmaceutical Affairs. An expert committee was established in 1995. A national research institute on herbal medicines was founded in 1999.

Regulation of herbal medicines was revised in 1996. Herbal medicines are regulated as prescription and over the counter medicines and as dietary supplements. Medical, health and nutrient content claims may be made by law. The British pharmacopoeia and the Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China are used in lieu of a national pharmacopoeia, but are not legally binding. The National formulary of Iran (2nd ed. 2000) contains the 70 national monographs; it is not legally binding.

Special GMP rules apply to the manufacture of herbal medicines; the implementation of these requirements is ensured by GMP inspection and national laboratory testing. Safety assessment requirements are traditional use without demonstrated harmful effects and reference to documented scientific research on similar products. Implementation of these requirements is ensured by the adverse drug reaction centre.

The registration system has registered 170 herbal medicines. No herbal medicines are included on an essential drug list. A post marketing surveillance system that includes adverse effect monitoring exists. In the Islamic Republic of Iran, herbal medicines are sold in pharmacies as over the counter and prescription medicines and in special outlets. Estimated annual market sales data for herbal sales was provided. In 1999, sales totalled US$ 3 million, in 2000, US$ 3.1 million and in 2001, US$ 3.5 million.

Jordan

Although the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan does not currently have a national policy on TM/CAM, one is currently being developed. Laws and regulations were established in 2001. No national programme is currently being planned. The national office on TM/CAM is part of the Drug Directorate of the Ministry of Health; it was established in 1999. An expert committee was created in 1991. No independent national research institutes on TM/CAM or herbal medicines have been established.

Herbal regulations in Jordan were developed in 2001, and are partly the same as for conventional pharmaceuticals. Herbal medicines are regulated as prescription medicines, over the counter medicines and for self medication. By law, medical, health, nutrient content and structure/function claims may be made. In lieu of a national pharmacopoeia, the United States pharmacopoeia is used. The WHO monographs are used in place of national monographs, and they are legally binding.

In Jordan, the regulatory requirements for the manufacture of herbal medicines are the same GMP rules that apply to conventional pharmaceuticals; implementation is ensured by a control mechanism. Safety assessment requirements are the same as for conventional pharmaceuticals, but also include special requirements of traditional use without demonstrated harmful effects and reference to documented scientific research on similar products; a control mechanism also exists for these requirements, involving toxicological studies.

The herbal medicines registry contains 35 medicines. No herbal medicines are included on the national essential drug list. A post marketing surveillance system that includes adverse effect monitoring was established in 2002. In Jordan, herbal medicines are sold in pharmacies as over the counter and prescription medicines without restriction.

Kuwait

The State of Kuwait established a national policy on TM/CAM through the creation of the Islamic Medicine Centre in 1978. Laws and regulations on TM/CAM were issued in 1989, and a national programme was created in 1984. The national office, the Islamic Medicine Centre, is part of the Ministry of Health; the Centre also serves as the expert committee and national research institute on herbal medicine.

Kuwait began regulation of herbal medicine in 1989 with the introduction of a separate law on herbal medicines. Herbal medicines are regulated as over the counter medicines, self medication, dietary supplements, health foods and functional foods. Medical and health claims may legally be made. In lieu of a national pharmacopoeia and national monographs, the European pharmacopoeia, British pharmacopoeia, United States pharmacopoeia and International pharmacopoeia are used and are legally binding.

Regulatory requirements for the manufacture of herbal medicines include the same GMP rules as for conventional pharmaceuticals, as well as adherence to information in pharmacopoeias and monographs. Implementation of these requirements is enforced through quality control of raw materials, manufacturing and finished products. Safety assessment requirements include the same requirements as for conventional pharmaceuticals and traditional use without demonstrated harmful effects. The control mechanism is the same as for manufacturing requirements, in which random samples are tested for quality control purposes.

The registry for herbal medicines contains 30 herbal medicines. No herbal medicines are included on a national essential drug list. A post marketing surveillance system is being planned.

In Kuwait, herbal medicines are sold in pharmacies as over the counter medicines without restriction; however, herbal medicines manufactured by the Islamic Medicine Centre are given to patients free of charge. Data were provided on the quantity of herbs used in manufacture and distributed: in 1999, it was 4 573 kg, in 2000, 3 755 kg and in 2001, 3 355 kg.

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

In the Great Socialist People s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, there are plans to establish a national policy, law or regulation, national programme and national office for TM/CAM. No expert committee currently exists; however, there is a national research institute for TM/CAM and herbal medicines. There is no national law or regulation on herbal medicines; therefore, they have no status and are not sold with claims. Though no national pharmacopoeia or monograph currently exists or is being developed, the British herbal pharmacopoeia and European pharmacopoeia are used, although they are not legally binding. No regulatory requirements apply to the manufacturing or safety assessment of herbal medicines. There is no registration system for herbal medicines, and consequently no herbal medicines are included on the national essential drug list. There are no available data about any post marketing surveillance system in Libya. Herbal medicines are either sold in pharmacies as over the counter drugs or sold without restriction.

Oman

A national policy on TM/CAM in the Sultanate of Oman is currently being established. In 2001, national laws and regulations on TM/CAM were introduced. No national programme has been issued or is being developed. There is also no national office, expert committee or research institute.

Herbal regulation in Oman began in 2001; it is similar to legislation for conventional pharmaceuticals. Herbal medicines have no regulatory status. Medical claims may legally be made. No national pharmacopoeia or national monographs exist, nor are they in development.

The same rules of GMP apply to herbal medicines as to conventional pharmaceuticals; no control mechanism ensures their implementation. Safety assessment requirements include the same requirements as for conventional pharmaceuticals, as well as special requirements consisting of use without demonstrated harmful effects and reference to documented scientific research on similar products; again, no control mechanism exists.

A registration system for herbal medicines has been established in Oman, but currently no figures are available on the number of registered herbal medicines. Herbal medicines are not included on an essential drug list. A post marketing surveillance system is being planned. In Oman, herbal medicines are sold by licensed practitioners.

Pakistan

In the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, a national policy on TM/CAM is being developed. Laws and regulations were developed in 1965 and amended in 1970 and 2002. A national programme was issued in 1965 and the national office was established in the same year; the office is part of the Ministry of Health. An expert committee on TM/CAM was established in 2001. The Drugs Control and Traditional Medicines Division of the National Institute of Health serves as the national institute on traditional medicine and was established in 1991.

The Drugs Act of 1962 controls the regulation of herbal medicines as regards advertising and prevention of misuse. Herbal medicines are regulated as over the counter medicines and dietary supplements. No claims may legally be made about herbal medicines. The national pharmacopoeia is the Tibbi pharmacopoeia (1967); the information is not legally binding. The Monographs of unani medicines (Vol. 1) has been prepared and published.

The Tibb e Unani, Ayurvedic, Homoeopathic, Herbal and Any Other Non Allopathic Medicine Act has been prepared to regulate the manufacture, sale, storage, import and export of medicines from these systems. The Act has been approved by the Federal Cabinet and Prime Minister of Pakistan; however, there are currently no regulatory requirements for either manufacture or safety assessment of herbal medicines. There is no registration system. Herbal medicines are not included on an essential drug list. A post marketing surveillance system is being developed. In Pakistan, herbal medicines are sold in pharmacies as over the counter drugs, by licensed practitioners, and in special outlets without any restrictions. Annual market sales data are 3.8 billion Pakistani rupees (US$ 49 million) for 1999, 4.5 billion rupees (US$ 78 million) for 2000 and, 5 billion rupees (US$ 87 million) for 2001.

Qatar

The State of Qatar does not have a national policy on TM/CAM, nor is one currently in development. Regulations on TM/CAM were issued in 1990 and in 2002. No national programme exists, nor is one currently being developed. The national office was formed in 2002 as part of the Ministry of Public Health; it is called the Herbal Medicines, Food Supplements and Medicated Cosmetic Section. An expert committee for TM/CAM was created in 1990. There are no national research institutes on TM/CAM.

Herbal regulations in Qatar were issued in 1990 and updated in 2002; these laws are separate from those dealing with conventional pharmaceuticals. Herbal medicines are regulated as over the counter medicines, dietary supplements, complementary products and as an independent regulatory category. By law, medical, health, nutrient content and structure/function claims may be made about herbal medicines.

There is no national pharmacopoeia; instead, the German herbal pharmacopoeia and the British herbal pharmacopoeia are used, and are legally binding. Five national monographs exist; they were published by the University of Qatar. They are Ecology and flora of Qatar (1981), Environment and plant life in Qatar (1986), Phytochemistry of the flora of Qatar (1986), Phytochemistry of the historical and cultural plants of Qatar (1989) and Medicinal and poisonous plants of Qatar (1995).

Regulatory requirements for the manufacture of herbal medicines are limited to adherence to information in pharmacopoeias and monographs; there is no mechanism for control of this requirement. Safety assessment requirements involve research into safety and local uses of current products and new products, use in other States in the region and information from other agencies regulating the product.

The registration system has accepted 2 134 herbal medicines; it was established in 1996. There are no herbal medicines included on a national essential drug list. A post marketing surveillance system is being planned. Herbal medicines in Qatar are sold in pharmacies as over the counter medicines without restriction.

Saudi Arabia

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is currently developing a national policy, laws and regulations on TM/CAM. No national programme has been issued. A national office was established within the Ministry of Health in 1995. There is no expert committee on TM/CAM. A national research institute on herbal medicines is part of King Saud University.

Herbal medicine regulation in Saudi Arabia was established in 1996 with the issue of a separate law specifically for herbal medicines. The regulatory categories for herbal medicines include over the counter medicines, self medication, dietary supplements, health foods and functional foods. By law, medical, health, nutrient content and structure/function claims may be made.

No national pharmacopoeia exists; however, the German pharmacopoeia, British pharmacopoeia and WHO monographs are used instead. They are not legally binding. In place of national monographs the WHO monographs are used, although they are not legally binding.

Regulatory requirements for manufacturing include some of the same GMP rules as for conventional pharmaceuticals, as well as special GMP rules. Implementation of these requirements is enforced through plant and factory inspections. Safety assessment requirements include some of the same requirements as for conventional pharmaceuticals, as well as reference to documented scientific research on similar products. Laboratory testing and analysis serve as the control mechanisms for these requirements.

In Saudi Arabia, there are 450 registered herbal medicines; however, none are included on an essential drug list. No plans have currently been made to establish a national post marketing surveillance system. In Saudi Arabia, herbal medicines are sold in pharmacies as prescription and over the counter medicines, and in special outlets without restriction.

Sudan

In the Republic of the Sudan, the Department of Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicines was established in 1995 under the National Board of Pharmacy. The national policy on TM/CAM has been drawn up since the establishment of this department. Laws and regulations are currently at the development stage. There is no national programme on TM/CAM. The national office was established within the Federal Ministry of Health under the name Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine Directorate. The National Research Institute conducts research on traditional medicine and herbal medicine; it was established in 1975.

Sudan first issued regulations on herbal medicines in 1996 and renewed them in 1998 and 2002. These regulations are separate from those for conventional pharmaceuticals. Herbal medicines are regulated as prescription medicines, self medication and dietary supplements. By law, medical and nutrient content claims may be made about herbal medicines.

In lieu of a national pharmacopoeia, the British herbal pharmacopoeia is used, and is considered to be legally binding. In place of national monographs, the WHO monographs are used.

The regulatory requirements for manufacturing include adherence to information in the British herbal pharmacopoeia and the WHO monographs, as well as the GMP rules for conventional pharmaceuticals and special GMP rules for herbal medicines. The implementation of these requirements involves evaluation of quality control data submitted by the manufacturer, GMP inspection and documentation of the raw material supply. Requirements for safety assessment include traditional use without demonstrated harmful effects and biosafety studies. To ensure adherence to these requirements, the biosafety study protocols are strictly followed.

There are eight herbal medicines currently registered. Sudan is planning to create an independent list of essential Sudanese medicinal plants. A post marketing surveillance system is currently being developed.

Herbal medicines in Sudan are sold in pharmacies as over the counter medicines and in special outlets. Annual market data was included for one registered herbal product, senna tablets, which is the only herbal product cultivated in Sudan and locally manufactured in tablet form by a local manufacturer. In 2001, total sales were 7.404 million Sudanese dinars (US$ 28 000 - 17 433 600 tablets), and in 2002 sales were worth 8.123 million dinars (US$ 31 000 - 19 148 500 tablets). In 2003, sales totalled 8.861 million dinars (US$ 34 000 - 20 889 270 tablets). Crude senna, gum arabic, gum acacia and hibiscus are marketed locally and internationally in commercial quantities. Digoxin and diosmin are registered as imported items.

Syrian Arab Republic

A national policy on TM/CAM was issued in the Syrian Arab Republic in 1998, along with laws and regulations. No national programme currently exists. The national office was established in 2000 as part of the Ministry of Health. An expert committee was founded in 2000. No national research institutes on TM, CAM or herbal medicines have been established.

In the Syrian Arab Republic, regulation of herbal medicines was introduced in 1998 as part of the same law that regulates conventional pharmaceuticals. Herbal medicines are regulated as prescription medicines, health foods and as an independent regulatory category. Medical and herbal claims may be made by law.

In place of a national pharmacopoeia, the United States pharmacopoeia is used and is legally binding. No national monographs exist, but the Physician’s desk reference is used and is also legally binding.

The regulatory requirements for manufacture of herbal medicines include adherence to information in pharmacopoeias and monographs and the GMP guidelines for herbal medicines that were established in 2004. Implementation of these requirements is enforced by a control mechanism. Safety assessment requirements include clinical trials submitted during registration and product licences. Clinical trials are required for preparations intended to be used for specific indications (e.g. diabetes, hypertion, etc.), and are assessed by the Ministry of Health s high level technical committee. There is no control mechanism for these requirements.

There are currently 44 herbal medicines registered in the Syrian Arab Republic. There are no herbal medicines included on the national essential drug list. No post marketing surveillance system exists. Herbal medicines are sold in pharmacies as prescription medicines.

United Arab Emirates

Currently, no national policy exists for TM/CAM in the United Arab Emirates; however, such a policy is being developed. Laws, regulations and a national programme on TM/CAM are also in development. The national office, which comes under the Ministry of Health, was established in 2001. There is currently no expert committee; however, TM/CAM applicants are examined and evaluated for their licence to practice by a specialized committee called the “Committee for Evaluation of Qualifications of Doctors and Specialists in Complementary and Alternative Medicine”. The Zayed Complex for Herbal Research and Traditional Medicine was established in 1996 and serves as the national research institute for traditional and herbal medicine.

The national laws and regulations on herbal medicines were established in 1995, as separate laws and regulations that are partially the same as those for conventional medicines. Herbal medicines are regulated as prescription and over the counter medicines, and as a separate regulatory category. By law, medical, health, nutrient content and structure/function claims may be made about herbal medicine. While the national pharmacopoeia is in the process of being developed, others are used, but are not legally binding. No national monographs yet exist, but they are in development. In their place, a number of others, including the WHO monographs, are used, but are not legally binding.

The regulatory requirements for the manufacture of herbal medicines include adherence to information in pharmacopoeias and monographs, as well as modified GMP rules. Compliance with these regulations is ensured through inspection and certification. The safety requirements for herbal medicines are special requirements, including demonstrated traditional use without harmful effects and reference to documented scientific research on similar products, in addition to the report of the Ministry of Health s quality control laboratory.

A registration system exists, which includes about 70 herbal medicines and a number of single and combination homeopathic medicines, as well as a few proprietary traditional Chinese medicines, yet none are included on a national essential drug list. Many herbal and other products from natural sources are registered using a simpler criterion, namely registration of general sale pharmaceutical products. A post marketing surveillance system has been established, and an adverse effect monitoring system is being developed.

In the United Arab Emirates, herbal medicines are generally sold in pharmacies as prescription and over the counter medicines and in special outlets. However, many herbal products and food supplements are also imported under special permits from the municipalities and sold in health food outlets licensed by them. Annual sales figures are based on estimates of imports through the Ministry of Health for 2001 and 2002. In 2001, US$ 1.358 million of herbal medicines were imported. These imports consisted of 1 842 160 caplets and tablets and 10 122 bottles. In 2002, such imports had a value of US$ 1.264 million and involved 2 495 760 caplets and tablets and 14 440 bottles.

Yemen

In the Republic of Yemen, no national policy, laws, regulations or national programme for TM/CAM have been established, nor are any in the process of development. A national office for TM/CAM is being planned. No expert committee exists, nor do any national research institutes currently exist for TM/CAM or herbal medicines.

No laws or regulations on herbal medicines have yet been established in Yemen. Herbal medicines are classified as over the counter medicines, dietary supplements and health foods, for self medication only. Herbal medicines are sold with medical, health and nutrient content claims. No national pharmacopoeia exists, and there is no further information about whether one is in preparation or whether other pharmacopoeias are used in its place. National monographs neither exist nor are being developed, nor are any others used in their place.

No information is available on the manufacturing regulatory requirements for herbal medicines, but a control mechanism exists to ensure compliance. Information is also not available about safety requirements for herbal medicines or control mechanisms for compliance.

A registration system exists; however, the number of registered herbal medicines is not known. No herbal medicines are included on a national essential drug list. No information is available on the existence of a post marketing surveillance system. In Yemen, herbal medicines are sold in pharmacies as over the counter medicines without restriction.

vers la section précédente
vers la section suivante
 
 
Le Portail d'information - Médicaments essentiels et produits de santé a été conçu et est maintenu par l'ONG Human Info. Dernière mise à jour: le 29 août 2014