Abouelenein AA. Trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) and the pharmaceutical industry in Egypt. Cairo, Federation of Egyptian Industry, June 1996.
This publication presents the view of a member of the Board of the Association of Egyptian Industries on the negative effects of the TRIPS Agreement on the country's pharmaceutical industry. These negative effects not only apply to the national pharmaceutical industry but also extend to economic, social and health aspects in the country.
Badwan AA. Implications of joining WTO on the Arab pharmaceutical industry. Jordan, 1996 (unpublished paper).
This paper briefly relates the development of international trade until the WTO was created, with emphasis on the developing countries, and presents the TRIPS Agreement provisions related to pharmaceuticals. It then examines the Arab pharmaceutical industry, pointing out common features, such as patent protection for pharmaceutical processes, but also the different pharmaceutical policy orientations. The author concludes that the reorientation of the Arab industry, by joining the WTO, may have a negative effect on public health with regard to medicines.
Ghorab MG. Agreement on intellectual property and pharmaceuticals in Egypt. Egypt, 1996 (unpublished paper).
This is a brief presentation of the drug situation in Egypt followed by an outline of the measures which should accompany the implementation of the TRIPS Agreement, particularly policies on registration and pricing, support to R&D activities and creating strategic alliances. There is also analysis of the advantages accruing from patent protection for the pharmaceutical industry and the Egyptian economy, as well as a discussion on the truths and falsehoods in the drug patents debate.
Shaarawi NM. Intellectual property rights: Egypt. Glaxo Wellcome Egypt, SAE, 1993.
This publication presents the view of a multinational's subsidiary on the TRIPS Agreement and the dispute over pharmaceutical patent protection. It first presents the views of the major protagonists: the Government, the national companies and the multinationals. It then discusses the issues of speed and depth of patent penetration of the Egyptian market, "check and balances" as regards price explosion and pharmaceutical R&D. Finally, the paper defends the motives for strengthening IPP and the options that will shape the end game.
UN ESCWA. Challenges and opportunities of the new international trade agreements (Uruguay Round) for ESCWA Member Countries in selected sectors: implications of WTO/TRIPS for technology transfer in the pharmaceutical industry. New York, United Nations, 1998.
This report is part of the study undertaken by the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) to assess the implications of the WTO rules and related agreements on selected sectors in the Member Countries. The first part addresses the main implications of WTO rules on trade, investments and technology in the pharmaceutical industry. It briefly describes patent regimes in force in the countries of the Region, reviews the main provisions relating to the protection of IPR, and provides policy recommendations for technology acquisition by the pharmaceutical industry in the Western Asia Region. The second part of the report is more concerned with pharmaceutical production and consumption in Member Countries. Information is given on production, consumption levels, ownership patterns, export ratios and R&D. The implications of WTO rules for technology transfer to the pharmaceutical industry in two countries, Egypt and the Syrian Arab Republic, are further analysed as case studies. The report concludes by claiming that there are two central issues that are among the topmost priorities for industry, government and the science and technology community in the ESCWA Member Countries. These are the acquisition of suitably sophisticated technologies and the enhancement of local R&D capabilities.