(1996; 157 pages)
6.2 Hygienic appropriateness of injection use
With Indicators IIe/f/g, the percentage of providers who do not observe minimal hygienic measures before, during and after administration is calculated:
To assess the process of injection administration, guidelines for evaluating hygienic aspects of injections had been prepared (Appendix 1.C).
In Uganda, the household users of injections were questioned about their experiences with complications of unsafe injections, and about the possession of injection equipment at home. In the health facilities, data was primarily collected through observational methods - this was done in collaboration with two professionally trained medical doctors. Through a combination of observational and informal discussions, the doctors evaluated hygienic measures undertaken before, during, and after administering injections. In Busoga, evaluation of hygienic measures was based on both WHO and country specific guidelines developed by the Ugandan Essential Drugs Management Programme (UEDMP) and the Ministry of Health (MOH) for use of injections. In Ankole, evaluation of hygienic measures was strictly based on the WHO guidelines. Data from Busoga and Ankole will be discussed separately since different guidelines were applied. An overview of various standards and indicators used to assess hygienic practices in Uganda is presented in Appendix 3.G.
In Indonesia, data on the appropriateness of handling syringes, and of giving injections, was evaluated by means of a questionnaire (Appendix 3.C). Observations of actual practices were not carried out. The questions in the questionnaire are roughly based on the above mentioned WHO-guidelines.