In both country studies providers were included in the research design. The survey was mainly aimed at establishing the prevalence of injection use at various provider facilities, evaluating the medical and hygienic appropriateness of injection use, and determining the source and type of equipment used. In Uganda, the provider study was strategically scheduled two months after the completion of the household survey to guide the identification of injection providers within the study communities. Based on the question in the household survey "Where was the last injection administered?", the team was able to identify a variety of injection providers. In the urban communities, more different categories of health providers could be identified than in the rural areas where health resources are restricted.
Problems encountered in studying doctors and other providers of injections were many. Both country teams report problems with sampling, non-response or refusal to cooperate. For example, in Uganda the original idea was to make a random selection of providers. Often, only those who were willing to cooperate could actually be surveyed. In Indonesia, it was reported that doctors in private practice were especially unwilling to cooperate. In both countries under-representation of (certain) private and non-formal or untrained providers is therefore a serious limitation. A further discussion of the study of prescribing practices in the country studies is given in Appendix 2.B.