(1996; 157 pages)
1.3 Development of the injection practices research
The collaborative research project on the use of injections was conducted in three developing countries: Indonesia, Senegal and Uganda. The project involved not only researchers from these countries, but also the participation from WHO Headquarters3 and from the Medical Anthropology Unit of the University of Amsterdam.
3Within the WHO Headquarters in Geneva, the Action Programme on Essential Drugs initiated the research project. The Expanded Programme on Immunization and the Global Programme on AIDS have also been involved in the formulation of the research project.
Three workshops were held in 1990, 1991 and 19934. During the first workshop (2-5 May 1990), data collection instruments and data analysis techniques were discussed. The plans for the project were finalized, and the research protocols of the country teams revised and standardized. A number of common variables and core injection indicators were defined. The participation of the country teams in the formulation of the collaborative research protocol has contributed substantially to the successful conduct of a multi-country project, allowing both for comparison of the research results without compromising the need for country specific modifications in the conduct of the research.
4 The proceedings of two workshops have been published by WHO:
Combined in WHO/DAP/92.9
The second workshop (21-22 October 1991) assessed the progress of the research projects and reviewed the problems encountered by the country teams during the implementation of their research protocol. Furthermore, the indicators which had been developed during the first workshop were reviewed. Several interesting themes for further qualitative research were identified. Finally, the results of the country studies were presented and discussed during a third workshop on 7-10 November 1993 in Geneva. This workshop was also attended by government representatives involved in national policy-making from two countries included in the study and by representatives of other WHO programmes. After this final workshop, the country reports and the final synthesis report were revised and prepared for publication.
The country proposals aimed at answering the same research questions, using similar sampling frames, definition of key variables, and drug use measures. However, during the implementation phase of the research it became clear that the application of the research protocol in Senegal differed substantially from that of the other two countries. For example, in Senegal the study was only performed in three regions in the urban-capital region of Dakar and not in rural areas. It proved impossible to compare the results of the Senegalese study with the other countries. Therefore, it was decided to limit the discussion of the results in this report only to Uganda and Indonesia.