Injection Practices in the Developing World - Results and Recommendations from Field Studies in Uganda and Indonesia - EDM Research Series No. 020
(1996; 157 pages) Voir le document au format PDF
Table des matières
Afficher le documentExecutive summary
Afficher le documentAcknowledgements
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu1. Introduction
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu2. Towards a rapid assessment methodology for injection practices research
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu3. Background: the social and cultural context of injections
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu4. The prevalence of injection use in Uganda and Indonesia
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu5. The popularity of injections in Uganda and Indonesia
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu6. The appropriateness of injection use in Uganda and Indonesia
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenu7. Conclusions and recommendations
Afficher le documentReferences
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuAppendix 1: Indicators for injection use and for assessment of hygienic practices
Fermer ce répertoireAppendix 2: Methods applied in the injection practices research
Afficher le documentAppendix 2.A Overview and assessment of user-oriented methods
Afficher le documentAppendix 2.B Overview and assessment of provider-oriented methods
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuAppendix 3: Tools used in the injection practices research
 

Appendix 2.A Overview and assessment of user-oriented methods

A review and assessment

Table 10: Overview of user-oriented methods used in country studies

Study type

Uganda
Busoga

Uganda
Ankole

Indonesia
Lebak

Indonesia
Lombok

In-depth interviews with key informants on provision and use of injections

yes

yes

no

no

Household questionnaire
(random sampling)
Using a two week recall period

yes
n=360

yes
n=360

yes
n=407

yes
n=409

Follow-up visit after two weeks

yes
n=360

yes
n=360

no

no

Focus group discussions on health, illness and injection use

no

no

yes
n=6

no

a. Interviews with key informants

Initial interviews with a selective group of key informants, in order to gain insight into local conditions, were conducted in Uganda both at the national and regional level. At the national level, interviews were held with representatives of the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Local Government, the Uganda Essential Drugs Management Programme, the AIDS Control Programme and the Uganda Red Cross. Local key informants in the community were members of the Local Resistance Council, the District Medical Officer and hospital/provider facility administrators. Some interviewees also raised objections to the research design. Some informants, for example, questioned the - in their view - limited scope of the study (only into injection practices) and the sampling frame, which excluded families who did not have children under the age of five.

The qualitative, intensive character of an interview with key informants adds to the understanding of the motivations for injection use, and of the context in which such use takes place. Therefore, this technique seems to fit the descriptive and exploratory nature of this research perfectly well.

b. Household questionnaire design and flow of questions

The questionnaires used in Uganda and Indonesia are presented in Appendices 4.A and 4.B respectively. They show some marked differences. In Indonesia, the focus of the questionnaire was on the treatment of ill people in the households. Individuals who were healthy but had received an injection (for example, for vaccination) were subsequently left out of the research. This type of questioning yielded a large amount of data on illnesses of individuals and their treatment.

The Ugandan questionnaire did not start from illness incidence, but from actual injection use. The questionnaire began by asking: "Who was the last person to get an injection and when was this injection received?" Here, the focus was the injection use and the symptoms for which the injection had been sought. Also, the Ugandan questionnaire focused specifically on informal injection use, equipment at home etc.

Differences in focus and questionnaire design of course limit the comparability of the results. This could have been avoided by a comparison of the questionnaires during the Second Workshop, and by agreement on the best design to be followed.

c. Focus group discussions

Six focus group discussions were conducted in three villages in Lebak, Indonesia. In Lombok these sessions were not conducted due to language constraints. The participants were chosen from subjects in the household survey who were willing to participate voluntarily, and who are able to talk easily in Bahasa Indonesian or the local language, Sundanese. Each group consisted of 6 to 12 participants, all of them women with children under five. During the focus group meetings, three major topics were discussed: the presence of illnesses in the region; the conditions which require, in the view of the participants, an injection as treatment and the treatment of the four tracer conditions identified by the Indonesian team. In Uganda, no focus group discussions were organized.

Focus group discussions conducted in Indonesia yielded insight into the local ideas about illnesses and their treatment. Preferences for injection therapy could thus be understood in their proper context. This method seems useful for researchers who want to gain a quick understanding of local ideas and who desire more insight into the context of injection use in their setting.

vers la section précédente
vers la section suivante
 
 
Le Portail d'information - Médicaments essentiels et produits de santé a été conçu et est maintenu par l'ONG Human Info. Dernière mise à jour: le 1 décembre 2019