The Treaty on the European Union (EU) came into force 1 November 1993. The Treaty instituting the European Economic Community (EEC) was intended to open a large market zone without borders, enabling the free movement of persons, goods, services, and capital. It is Treaty regulations on the movement of persons and goods, in particular, which affect health services and medications (172, 280, 281).
For the purpose of employment or for activities as a self-employed person, citizens of the European Union, under Articles 39 to 55 of the Treaty, have the right to move and take residence freely within the European Union. Some limitations and conditions on this freedom are outlined in Articles 12 and 39 of the Treaty. Moreover, by Directive 65/221/EEC, individual countries can limit the right of free movement on justified grounds of public health.
Specific directives ensure the mutual recognition of diplomas of allopathic doctors, dentists, pharmacists, midwives, and nurses. Similarly, directives based on Article 95 of the Treaty regarding Union-wide harmonization of legislation regulate, among other things, pharmaceuticals, blood products, medical devices, foodstuffs, dangerous substances and preparations, cosmetics, safety of products, precursors, tobacco products, personal protective equipment, and the protection of personal medical data.