WHO Model Prescribing Information: Drugs Used in Anaesthesia
(1989; 60 pages) [French] Voir le document au format PDF
Table des matières
Afficher le documentPreface
Afficher le documentIntroduction
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuPremedication
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuGeneral anaesthetics and oxygen
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuLocal anaesthetics
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuNon-opioid analgesics
Fermer ce répertoireOpioid analgesics and antagonists
Afficher le documentMorphine
Afficher le documentPethidine
Afficher le documentNaloxone
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuMuscle relaxants and cholinesterase inhibitors
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuBlood substitutes
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuSolutions for correcting water and electrolyte imbalance
Ouvrir ce répertoire et afficher son contenuAntacid for use in obstetric practice
Afficher le documentAnaesthesia at the District Hospital
Afficher le documentSelected WHO publications of related interest
Afficher le documentBack cover
 

Naloxone

Group: opioid antagonist
Injection: 0.4 mg (hydrochloride) in 1-ml ampoule

General information

Naloxone is a semisynthetic opioid antagonist that competes with opioid analgesics for specific receptor sites in the central nervous system. Its effect, which persists for about 45 minutes, occurs within 1-2 minutes of intravenous administration.

Clinical information

Uses

To counteract respiratory depression induced by opioids administered during anaesthesia or by opioid overdosage.

Dosage and administration

Post-anaesthetic administration

Adults: 100-400 micrograms i.v. titrated to the needs of the patient and repeated, as necessary, at intervals of 2-3 minutes.

Children: 5-10 micrograms/kg i.v. repeated as above.

Neonates: 10 micrograms/kg i.v., i.m. or subcutaneously immediately after birth.

Opioid overdosage

Adults: 200 micrograms i.v. repeated, as necessary, at 2-minute intervals to a maximum of 10 mg.

Dosage should be reduced in patients with cardiovascular conditions predisposing to dysrhythmias.

Contraindications

• Known hypersensitivity to naloxone.

• Physical dependence on narcotics (naloxone will precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome in dependent patients).

Precautions

The use of naloxone to counteract respiratory depression complements other resuscitative measures including maintenance of a clear airway, control of ventilation, cardiac massage, maintenance of an effective circulatory volume and vasopressor therapy. The necessary facilities and equipment for such treatment must be immediately available.

Use in pregnancy

Naloxone should be used during pre-term pregnancy only when the need outweighs any possible risk to the fetus.

Adverse effects

Unnecessarily high doses may cause hypertension and tachycardia. Transient nausea, vomiting, sweating, tachycardia, hypertension and tremor have been reported. Seizures are rare.

Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease have occasionally developed ventricular dysrhythmias.

Overdosage

Excessive dosage results in convulsions, raised blood pressure and loss of preexisting opioid analgesia.

Storage

Naloxone injection should be kept protected from light.

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Le Portail d'information - Médicaments essentiels et produits de santé a été conçu et est maintenu par l'ONG Human Info. Dernière mise à jour: le 29 octobre 2018