Programmatic Management of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (PMDT) - Kenya. Third Edition, June 2014
(2014; 106 pages)


There were about 650 000 cases of MDR-TB present in the world in 2010. It is estimated that about 9% of these cases had XDR-TB. Annually, about 440 000 fall ill with MDR-TB and 150 000 die due to this form of tuberculosis. In 2012, WHO estimated 450,000 MDR TB cases of whom 170,000 died

Kenya is one of the 22 high burden TB countries that collectively contribute about 80% of the world‘s TB burden. TB in Kenya is primarily driven by HIV and poverty with the urban-slum population making the greatest contribution. The TB case notification rose from 57/100,000 in 1985 to 329/100,000 in 2008, but has now declined to 264/100,000 in 2011 In Kenya, treatment period for TB has reduced from 18 months to 12, then 8, and now 6 months The TB Short Course Chemotherapy (SCC) was initiated in the country in 1993 and covered the whole country in 1997.

In 2012 there were 99,179 TB cases in the country of whom 9, 879 (9.6%) were previously treated. WHO estimates in 2012 that 2.5% of the new smear positive cases and 10% of previously treated patients have MDR TB leading to a total of 2,780 cases of MDR TB.

Since 2002 surveillance of MDR TB has been strengthened and conducted for all retreatment cases of TB. Over the years, the proportion of retreatment patients submitting sputum specimens to the CRL has improved and in 2011, up to 83 % of all retreatment cases submitted sputum for culture and DST. From 2006 to 2013, the CRL has documented a total of 1191 MDR TB cases of which 285 patients were notified in 2013. Over 150 patients have been cured, and 210 treated successfully (cured inclusive). Kenya achieved a treatment success rate of 80% in MDR TB for the 2011 cohort.

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