Assessment of the Pharmaceutical Sector in Ethiopia, October 2003
(2003; 44 pages)


The main objective of the study was to identify strengths and weaknesses in the pharmaceutical sector and give recommendations for improvement. Specifically, it was to see whether the target outcomes of the pharmaceutical sector (i.e. access, quality assurance and rational drug use) have been achieved and also determine whether Ethiopia has the necessary structures and mechanisms in place for improving its pharmaceutical sector.

The study has shown that the necessary structures and mechanisms required for the implementation of the NDP are more or less in place and a lot of achievements have been made. However, weaknesses in the implementation of the proclamation and some elements of the NDP were noted. For example, all manufacturers except one operate without having "certificate of competence" from DACA. Only drugs imported by the private sector are subjected to registration. The drug registration process is not linked to inspection of manufacturing sites abroad. The allocated drug budget was inadequate as revealed by a low per capita government drug budget of ETB 1.6(US$ 0.18), which is much lower than the target set in HSDP I (US$ 1.25) and the WHO's recommendation of US$ 1.00. There is no proper stock management in health facilities as revealed by absence of stock control tools such as stock card in 60 % of the surveyed health facilities.

Moreover, there is no specific NDP implementation plan that sets responsibilities, budget and time line although some elements of the NDP are incorporated in HSDPI. Monitoring and evaluation of the NDP wasnot included as an element of the policy itself...

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