Drug Promotion - What We Know, What We Have Yet to Learn - Reviews of Materials in the WHO/HAI Database on Drug Promotion - EDM Research Series No. 032
(2004; 102 pages) Ver el documento en el formato PDF
Índice de contenido
Ver el documentoAcknowledgements
Ver el documentoExecutive summary
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoIntroduction
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoReview 1. What attitudes do professional and lay people have to promotion?
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoReview 2. What impact does pharmaceutical promotion have on attitudes and knowledge?
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoReview 3. What impact does pharmaceutical promotion have on behaviour?
Cerrar esta carpetaReview 4. What interventions have been tried to counter promotional activities, and with what results?
Ver el documento4.1 Guidelines, codes and regulations for printed and broadcast material
Ver el documento4.2. The ‘Fair Balance’ requirement
Ver el documento4.3 Guidelines for sales representatives
Ver el documento4.4 Guidelines for post-marketing surveillance
Ver el documento4.5 Guidelines on conflict of interest in research
Ver el documento4.6 Guidelines for package inserts and compendia
Ver el documento4.7 Guidelines about gifts
Ver el documento4.8 Guidelines for trainee doctors and for hospitals
Ver el documento4.9 Knowledge of these guidelines and their effect on attitudes
Ver el documento4.10 Education about promotion
Ver el documento4.11 Monitoring/countering promotion
Ver el documento4.12 Research as an intervention
Ver el documentoSummary of conclusions
Ver el documentoDirections for future research
Ver el documentoFinal conclusions
Ver el documentoReferences
 

4.7 Guidelines about gifts

In the USA, the American Medical Association has guidelines about gifts from the pharmaceutical industry incorporated in its Code of Ethics. These suggest that gifts to doctors should primarily benefit patients and should not be of substantial value. The American College of Physicians also suggests that a useful criterion for determining acceptability is whether doctors would “be willing to have these arrangements generally known”.

In Gibbons et al.’s study of attitudes to gifts from the pharmaceutical industry to doctors, only 62% of doctors were aware of any guideline about accepting gifts34. Awareness of a guideline was the only predictor of doctors reporting that gifts were not appropriate. However these are self report data, so those who knew about guidelines may have felt more social pressure to say that gifts were unacceptable.

Drug samples, although not intended as gifts to doctors, may in fact be used in this way. Westfall, McCabe and Nicholas124 found that in their family practice residency almost all staff, including medical practitioners, office staff etc had used samples provided by sales representatives for their personal or family use. The total retail cost of these was over US$10,000. As a result of their findings they instituted new controls over access to the medicine samples.

CONCLUSION: Not enough is known about the impact of guidelines for gifts to reach any conclusions.

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