Drug Promotion - What We Know, What We Have Yet to Learn - Reviews of Materials in the WHO/HAI Database on Drug Promotion - EDM Research Series No. 032
(2004; 102 pages) Ver el documento en el formato PDF
Índice de contenido
Ver el documentoAcknowledgements
Ver el documentoExecutive summary
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoIntroduction
Cerrar esta carpetaReview 1. What attitudes do professional and lay people have to promotion?
Ver el documento1.1 Attitudes do not necessarily match behaviour
Ver el documento1.2 Studies of the prevalence of different attitudes to promotion (excluding direct-to-consumer advertising)
Ver el documento1.3 Do trainers and trainees think that sales representatives should be banned during medical training?
Ver el documento1.4 Do doctors think they have enough training to deal with sales representatives?
Ver el documento1.5 Do doctors think that sales representatives have a valuable role in medical education?
Ver el documento1.6 What do health professionals think about the quality of the information provided by sales representatives and advertisements about drugs?
Ver el documento1.7 What do other groups of people think of promotional information?
Ver el documento1.8 What are doctors’ views of pharmaceutical company support of conferences and speakers?
Ver el documento1.9 Do trainee doctors plan to see sales representatives in their future practice?
Ver el documento1.10 What are professionals’ and patients’ attitudes to the appropriateness of gifts?
Ver el documento1.11 Do health professionals feel that discussions with sales representatives affect prescribing?
Ver el documento1.12 Do people feel that accepting gifts influences prescribing?
Ver el documento1.13 Ethics and promotion
Ver el documento1.14 Attitudes to direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs
Ver el documento1.15 Studies of differences in attitudes to promotion (excluding DTCA)
Ver el documentoSummary of conclusions
Ver el documentoDirections for future research
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoReview 2. What impact does pharmaceutical promotion have on attitudes and knowledge?
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoReview 3. What impact does pharmaceutical promotion have on behaviour?
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoReview 4. What interventions have been tried to counter promotional activities, and with what results?
Ver el documentoFinal conclusions
Ver el documentoReferences

1.2 Studies of the prevalence of different attitudes to promotion (excluding direct-to-consumer advertising)

These are studies that simply assess percentages of people who report certain attitudes or beliefs about promotion. Some do start to explore differences within their samples, but this is not their main objective. Many of these studies look at the attitudes of medical students, doctors in training programmes, their trainers, or patients. Few studies look at practicing doctors, or at the public in general. Studies are often based at one or two institutions (usually in the USA and/or Canada), or are written questionnaires sent to directors of training programmes around the USA and/or Canada. Most studies focus on doctors in training or their trainers, examining and discussing what is an appropriate relationship between promotion and training.

Surveys of the prevalence of different attitudes include: Hodges4 who looked at psychiatry residents, interns and clerks in seven Canadian hospitals; Sergeant et al.5 who looked at family medicine residents in Ontario; Aldir et al.’s6 survey of practicing and resident doctors in Northeastern Ohio, USA, about their views of promotion; Barnes and Holcenberg’s7 survey of medical and pharmacy students at the University of Washington in 1970; Blake and Early’s8 survey of Missouri patients about their attitudes to gifts given by pharmaceutical companies to doctors; Madhaven et al.9, who surveyed West Virginia doctors about their attitude to gifts from the industry; and Keim’s10 survey of directors of emergency medicine programmes, and residents in these programmes, about their attitude to interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Others include: Mainous et al.11, who surveyed 649 adults in Kentucky about their attitudes to doctors accepting gifts from the pharmaceutical industry; Reeder et al.12, who surveyed all chiefs of US emergency medicine residency programmes; Strang et al.13 who surveyed Canadian doctors; Lichstein et al.14 who surveyed directors of internal medicine residency programmes; and Dunn et al.15 who surveyed Ontario physicians.

CONCLUSION: These studies do not suggest any clear patterns in attitudes to promotion. Further research would be required to determine if variations in the findings depend on the population surveyed, and on the way questions were asked, who asked the questions, and in what context.

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