WHO Drug Information Vol. 16, No. 2, 2002
(2002; 91 pages) Ver el documento en el formato PDF
Índice de contenido
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoHerbal Medicines
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoCurrent Topics
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoGood Clinical Practices
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoSafety Information
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoRegulatory Action
Cerrar esta carpetaEssential Medicines
Ver el documentoNew procedures for updating the Model List of Essential Medicines
Ver el documentoCore list (revised in April 2002)
Ver el documentoWHO Model List of Essential Medicines: Complementary List
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoRecent Publications and Sources of Information
Ver el documentoProposed International Nonproprietary Names: List 87
 

WHO Model List of Essential Medicines: Complementary List

1: Anaesthetics

1.2 LOCAL ANAESTHETICS

ephedrine (C)
(For use in spinal anaesthesia during delivery to prevent hypotension)

injection, 30 mg
(hydrochloride)/ml in
1-ml ampoule

2: Analgesics, Antipyretics, Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medicines (NSAIDs), Medicines Used to Treat Gout and Disease-Modifying Agents used in Rheumatic Disorders (DMARDs)

2.2 OPIOID ANALGESICS

¤pethidine (A) (1a, 4)

injection, 50 mg
(hydrochloride) in 1-ml ampoule
tablet, 50 mg, 100 mg (hydrochloride)

5: Anticonvulsants/Antiepileptics

¤clonazepam (B) (1b)

scored tablet, 500 micrograms

6: Anti-infective Medicines

6.1 ANTHELMINTHICS

6.1.2 ANTIFILARIALS

suramin sodium (B) (2, 7)

powder for injection,
1 g in vial

6.1.3 ANTISCHISTOSOMALS AND OTHER ANTITREMATODE MEDICINES

oxamniquine (C) (8)

capsule, 250 mg
syrup, 250 mg/5 ml

6.2 ANTIBACTERIALS

6.2.1 BETA LACTAM MEDICINES

Restricted indications

¤amoxicillin +
¤ clavulanic acid (D)

tablet, 500 mg + 125 mg

Explanatory Notes

The complementary list presents essential medicines for priority diseases which are efficacious, safe and cost-effective but not necessarily affordable, or for which specialised health care facilities or services may be needed.

When the strength of a drug is specified in terms of a selected salt or ester, this is mentioned in brackets; when it refers to the active moiety, the name of the salt or ester in brackets is preceded by the word “as”. Many drugs included in the list are preceded by a box (¤) to indicate that they represent an example of a therapeutic group and that various drugs could serve as alternatives. It is imperative that this is understood when drugs are selected at national level, since choice is then influenced by the comparative cost and availability of equivalent products. Examples of acceptable substitutions include:

¤ Hydrochlorothiazide: any other thiazide-type diuretic currently in broad clinical use.

¤ Hydralazine: any other peripheral vasodilator having an antihypertensive effect.

¤ Senna: any stimulant laxative (either synthetic or of plant origin).


Numbers in parentheses following drug names indicate:

(1) Drugs subject to international control under: (a) the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961); (b) the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971); or (c) the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (1988).

(2) Specific expertise, diagnostic precision, individualization of dosage or special equipment required for proper use.

(3) Greater potency or efficacy.

(4) In renal insufficiency, contraindicated or dosage adjustments necessary.

(5) To improve compliance.

(6) Special pharmacokinetic properties. (7) Adverse effects diminish benefit/risk ratio. (8) Limited indications or narrow spectrum of activity. (9) For epidural anaesthesia.

(10) Sustained-release preparations are available. A proposal to include such a product in a national list of essential drugs should be supported by adequate documentation.

(11) Monitoring of therapeutic concentrations in plasma can improve safety and efficacy.


Letters in parentheses following the drug names indicate the reasons for the inclusion:

(A) When drugs in the main list cannot be made available.

(B) When drugs in the main list are known to be ineffective or inappropriate for a given individual.

(C) For use in rare disorders or in exceptional circumstances.

(D) Reserve antimicrobials to be used only when there is significant resistance to other drugs on the list.


Drugs are listed in alphabetical order

ceftazidime (D)

powder for injection, 250 mg
(as pentahydrate) in vial

   

¤ceftriaxone (D)

powder for injection, 250 mg
(as sodium salt) in vial

   

imipenem +
cilastatin (D)

powder for injection, 250 mg
(as monohydrate) + 250 mg,
(as sodium salt)
500 mg (as monohydrate) +
500 mg (as sodium salt) in vial

6.2.2 OTHER ANTIBACTERIALS

chloramphenicol (C)

oily suspension for injection,
0.5 g (as sodium succinate)/ml
in 2-ml ampoule

   

clindamycin (B) (8)

capsule 150 mg,

   
 

injection, 150 mg
(as phosphate)/ml

Restricted indication

 
   

vancomycin (D)

powder for injection 250 mg (as hydrochloride) in vial

6.2.4 ANTITUBERCULOSIS MEDICINES

thioacetazone +
isoniazid (A) (5, 7)

tablet, 50 mg + 100 mg,
150 mg + 300 mg

Reserve second-line medicines for the treatment of multid-rug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) should be used in specialized centres adhering to WHO standards for TB control.

amikacin (D)

powder for injection.
1000 mg in vial

   

p-aminosalicylic acid (D)

tablet 500 mg

granules, 4 g in sachet

   

capreomycin (D)

powder for injection,
1000 mg in vial

   

ciprofloxacin (D)

tablet, 250 mg, 500 mg

   

¤cycloserine (D)

capsule or tablet, 250 mg

   

¤ethionamide (D)

tablet, 125 mg, 250 mg

   

kanamycin (D)

powder for injection,
1000 mg in vial

   

levofloxacin (D)

tablet, 250 mg, 500 mg

   

ofloxacin (D)

tablet, 200 mg 400 mg

6.3 ANTIFUNGAL MEDICINES

flucytosine (B) (4, 8)

capsule, 250 mg
infusion, 2.5 g in 250 ml

   

potassium iodide (A)

saturated solution

6.5 ANTIPROTOZOAL MEDICINES

6.5.2 ANTILEISHMANIASIS MEDICINES

amphotericin B (B) (4)

powder for injection,
50 mg in vial

6.5.3 ANTIMALARIAL MEDICINES

6.5.3.1 FOR CURATIVE TREATMENT

¤doxycycline (B) (for use only in combination with quinine)

capsule or tablet,
100 mg (hydrochloride)

   

mefloquine (B)

tablet, 250 mg (as hydrochloride)

   

¤sulfadoxine +
pyrimethamine (B)

tablet, 500 mg + 25 mg

   

Restricted indications

 

artemether (D)

injection, 80 mg/ml
in 1-ml ampoule

   

artesunate (D)

tablet, 50 mg

6.5.5 ANTITRYPANOSOMAL MEDICINES

eflornithine (C)

injection, 200 mg (hydro-chloride)/ml in 100-ml bottles

8: Antineoplastic and Immunosuppressive Medicines and Medicines Used in Palliative Care

8.1 IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE MEDICINES Adequate resources and specialist oversight are a prerequisite for the introduction of this class of drugs.

¤azathioprine (2)

tablet, 50 mg

powder for injection, 100 mg
(as sodium salt) in vial

   

¤ciclosporin (2)
(for organ transplantation)

capsule, 25 mg

concentrate for injection,
50 mg/ml in 1-ml ampoule

8.2 CYTOTOXIC MEDICINES

Adequate resources and specialist oversight are a prerequisite for the introduction of this class of drugs.

asparaginase (2)

powder for injection,
10 000 IU in vial

   

bleomycin (2)

powder for injection, 15 mg
(as sulfate) in vial

   

calcium folinate (2)

tablet, 15 mg
injection, 3 mg/ml in 10-ml ampoule

   

chlorambucil (2)

tablet, 2 mg

   

chlormethine (2)

powder for injection, 10 mg
(hydrochloride) in vial

   

cisplatin (2)

powder for injection,
10 mg, 50 mg in vial

   

cyclophosphamide (2)

tablet, 25 mg

powder for injection,
500 mg in vial

   

cytarabine (2)

powder for injection,
100 mg in vial

   

dacarbazine (2)

powder for injection,
100 mg in vial

   

dactinomycin (2)

powder for injection
500 µg in vial

   

daunorubicin (2)

powder for injection,
50 mg (as hydrochloride) in vial

   

¤doxorubicin (2)

powder for injection, 10 mg,
50 mg (hydrochloride) in vial

   

etoposide (2)

capsule, 100 mg
injection, 20 mg/ml in 5-ml ampoule

   

fluorouracil (2)

injection, 50 mg/ml
in 5-ml ampoule

   

levamisole (2)

tablet, 50 mg
(as hydrochloride)

   

mercaptopurine (2)

tablet, 50 mg

   

methotrexate (2)

tablet, 2.5 mg (as sodium salt)

powder for injection, 50 mg
(as sodium salt) in vial

   

procarbazine

capsule, 50 mg (as hydrochloride)

   

vinblastine (2)

powder for injection,
10 mg (sulfate) in vial

   

vincristine (2)

powder for injection,
1 mg, 5 mg (sulfate) in vial

8.3 HORMONES AND ANTIHORMONES

¤prednisolone

tablet, 5 mg

powder for injection, 20 mg,
25 mg (as sodium phosphate or sodium succinate) in vial

   

tamoxifen

tablet, 10 mg, 20 mg (as citrate)

8.4 MEDICINES USED IN PALLIATIVE CARE

The WHO Expert Committee on Selection and Use of Essential Medicines recommended that all the drugs mentioned in the WHO publication Cancer Pain Relief: with a Guide to Opioid Availability, 2nd edition, be considered essential. The drugs are included in the relevant sections of the model list according to their therapeutic use, e.g. analgesics.

¤iron dextran (B) (5)

injection, equivalent to 50 mg
iron/ml in 2-ml ampoule

11: Blood Products and Plasma Substitutes

11.2 PLASMA FRACTIONS FOR SPECIFIC USE

All plasma fractions should comply with the WHO Requirements for the Collection, Processing and Quality Control of Blood, Blood Components, and Plasma Derivitives (Revised 1992). WHO Technical Report Series, No. 840, 1994, Annex 2.

¤factor VIII concentrate (C) (2, 8)

dried

¤factor IX complex (coagulation factors II, VII, IX, X) concentrate (C) (2, 8)

dried

12: Cardiovascular Medicines

12.2 ANTIARRHYTHMIC MEDICINES

epinephrine (adrenaline) (C)

injection, 1 mg
(as hydrochloride)/ml
in ampoule

   

isoprenaline (C)

injection, 20 micrograms
(hydrochloride)/ml

   

¤procainamide (B)

injection, 100 mg
(hydrochloride)/ml
in 10-ml ampoule

   

¤quinidine (A) (7)

tablet, 200 mg (sulfate)

12.3 ANTIHYPERTENSIVE MEDICINES

¤prazosin (B)

tablet, 500 micrograms,
1 mg

   

¤sodium nitroprusside(C) (2, 8)

powder for infusion,
50 mg in ampoule

12.5 ANTITHROMBOTIC MEDICINES

streptokinase (C)

powder for injection,
100 000 IU, 750 000 IU in vial

13: Dermatological Medicines (topical)

13.1 ANTIFUNGAL MEDICINES

selenium sulfide (C)

detergent-based
suspension, 2%

13.7 ULTRAVIOLET-BLOCKING AGENTS

topical sun protection agent with activity against ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B (C)

cream, lotion or gel

14: Diagnostic Agents

14.2 RADIOCONTRAST MEDIA

¤meglumine iotroxate (C)

solution, 5 - 8 g iodine
in 100-250 ml

16: Diuretics

¤mannitol (C)

injectable solution, 10%, 20%

18: Hormones, other Endocrine Medicines and Contraceptives

18.1 ADRENAL HORMONES AND SYNTHETIC SUBSTITUTES

fludrocortisone (C)

tablet, 100 micrograms (acetate)

18.2 ANDROGENS

testosterone (C) (2)

injection, 200 mg
(enantate) in 1-ml ampoule

18.3 CONTRACEPTIVES

18.3.1 HORMONAL CONTRACEPTIVES

levonorgestrel

tablet, 30 micrograms

   

medroxyprogesterone acetate (B) (7, 8)

depot injection,
150 mg in 1-ml vial

   

norethisterone enantate (B) (7, 8)

oily solution, 200 mg/ml in
1-ml ampoule

   

18.7 PROGESTOGENS

medroxyprogesterone acetate (B)

tablet, 5 mg

20: Muscle Relaxants (peripherally acting) and Cholinesterase Inhibitors

vecuronium bromide (C)

powder for injection,
10 mg in vial

21: Ophthalmological Preparations

21.5 MYDRIATICS

epinephrine (A)

solution (eye drops), 2%
(as hydrochloride)

25: Medicines acting on the Respiratory Tract

25.1 ANTIASTHMATIC MEDICINES

¤cromoglicic acid (B)

inhalation (aerosol),
20 mg (sodium salt) per dose

27: Vitamins and Minerals

calcium gluconate (C) (2, 8)

injection,100 mg/ml
in 10-ml ampoule

 

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