WHO Drug Information Vol. 16, No. 2, 2002
(2002; 91 pages) Ver el documento en el formato PDF
Índice de contenido
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoHerbal Medicines
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoCurrent Topics
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoGood Clinical Practices
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoSafety Information
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoRegulatory Action
Cerrar esta carpetaEssential Medicines
Ver el documentoNew procedures for updating the Model List of Essential Medicines
Ver el documentoCore list (revised in April 2002)
Ver el documentoWHO Model List of Essential Medicines: Complementary List
Abrir esta carpeta y ver su contenidoRecent Publications and Sources of Information
Ver el documentoProposed International Nonproprietary Names: List 87
 

Core list (revised in April 2002)

WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

1: Anaesthetics

1.1 GENERAL ANAESTHETICS AND OXYGEN

ether, anaesthetic (1c) (2)

inhalation

halothane (2)

inhalation

ketamine (2)

injection, 50 mg (as hydro-chloride)/ml in 10-ml vial

nitrous oxide (2)

inhalation

oxygen

inhalation (medicinal gas)

¤thiopental (2)

powder for injection, 0.5 g, 1.0 g(sodium salt) in ampoule

1.2 LOCAL ANAESTHETICS

¤bupivacaine (2, 9)

injection, 0.25%, 0.5% (hydrochloride) in vial

injection for spinal anaesthesia, 0.5% (hydrochloride) in 4-ml ampoule to be mixed with 7.5% glucose solution

   

¤lidocaine

injection, 1%, 2%
(hydrochloride) in vial

   
 

injection for spinal anaesthesia, 5% (hydrochloride) in 2-ml ampoule to be mixed with 7.5% glucose solution

topical forms, 2-4% (hydrochloride)

   

¤lidocaine + epinephrine
(adrenaline)

injection, 1%, 2%
(hydrochloride)
+ epinephrine 1:200 000 in vial

dental cartridge, 2% (hydrochloride)
+ epinephrine 1:80 000

 

1.3 PREOPERATIVE MEDICATION & SEDATION FOR SHORT-TERM PROCEDURES

 

atropine

injection, 1 mg (sulfate)
in 1-ml ampoule

   

chloral hydrate

syrup, 200 mg/5 ml

   

¤diazepam (1b)

injection, 5 mg/ml
in 2-ml ampoule

tablet, 5 mg

Explanatory Notes

The core list presents a list of minimum medicine needs for a basic health care system, listing the most efficacious, safe and cost-effective medicines for priority conditions. Priority conditions are selected on the basis of current and estimated future public health relevance, and potential for safe and cost-effective treatment.

When the strength of a drug is specified in terms of a selected salt or ester, this is mentioned in brackets; when it refers to the active moiety, the name of the salt or ester in brackets is preceded by the word “as”. Many drugs included in the list are preceded by a box ¤ to indicate that they represent an example of a therapeutic group and that various drugs could serve as alternatives. It is imperative that this is understood when drugs are selected at national level, since choice is then influenced by the comparative cost and availability of equivalent products. Examples of acceptable substitutions include:

¤ Hydrochlorothiazide: any other thiazide-type diuretic currently in broad clinical use.

¤ Hydralazine: any other peripheral vasodilator having an antihypertensive effect.

¤ Senna: any stimulant laxative (either synthetic or of plant origin).


Numbers in parentheses following drug names indicate:

(1) Drugs subject to international control under: (a) the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961); (b) the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971); or (c) the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (1988).

(2) Specific expertise, diagnostic precision, individualization of dosage or special equipment required for proper use.

(3) Greater potency or efficacy.

(4) In renal insufficiency, contraindicated or dosage adjustments necessary.

(5) To improve compliance.

(6) Special pharmacokinetic properties.

(7) Adverse effects diminish benefit/risk ratio.

(8) Limited indications or narrow spectrum of activity.

(9) For epidural anaesthesia.

(10) Sustained-release preparations are available. A proposal to include such a product in a national list of essential drugs should be supported by adequate documentation.

(11) Monitoring of therapeutic concentrations in plasma can improve safety and efficacy.


Drugs are listed in alphabetical order.

¤morphine (1a)

injection, 10 mg (sulfate or hydrochloride) in 1-ml ampoule

¤promethazine

elixir or syrup, 5 mg
(hydrochloride)/5 ml

2: Analgesics, Antipyretics, Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medicines (NSAIMs), Medicines Used to Treat Gout and Disease-Modifying Agents used in Rheumatic Disorders (DMARDs)

2.1 NON-OPIOID ANALGESICS & NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY MEDICINES (NSAIMs)

acetylsalicylic acid

tablet, 100-500 mg
suppository, 50-150 mg

   

¤ibuprofen

tablet, 200 mg, 400 mg

   

paracetamol

tablet, 100-500 mg
suppository, 100 mg
syrup, 125 mg/5 ml

2.2 OPIOID ANALGESICS

¤codeine (1a)

tablet, 30 mg (phosphate)

   

¤morphine (1a)

injection, 10 mg (sulfate or hydrochloride) in 1-ml ampoule

oral solution, 10 mg (hydrochloride or sulfate))/5 ml
tablet, 10 mg (sulfate)

2.3 MEDICINES USED TO TREAT GOUT

allopurinol (4)

tablet, 100 mg

   

colchicine (7)

tablet, 500 micrograms

2.4 DISEASE-MODIFYING AGENTS USED IN RHEUMATIC DISORDERS

azathioprine (2)

tablet, 50 mg

   

chloroquine (2)

tablet, 100 mg, 150 mg
(as phosphate or sulfate)

   

cyclophosphamide (2)

tablet, 25 mg

   

methotrexate (2)

tablet, 2.5 mg (as sodium salt)

   

penicillamine (2)

capsule or tablet, 250 mg

   

sulfasalazine (2)

tablet, 500 mg

3: Antiallergics and Medicines Used in Anaphylaxis

¤chlorphenamine

tablet, 4 mg (hydrogen maleate)

injection, 10 mg (hydrogen maleate) in 1-ml ampoule

   

¤dexamethasone

tablet, 500 micrograms, 4 mg

injection, 4 mg
dexamethasone phosphate
(as disodium salt) in 1-ml ampoule

   

epinephrine (adrenaline)

injection, 1 mg (as hydro-chloride or hydrogen tartrate)
in 1-ml ampoule

   

hydrocortisone

powder for injection, 100 mg
(as sodium succinate) in vial

   

¤prednisolone

tablet, 5 mg

4: Antidotes and Other Substances Used in Poisoning

4.1 NON-SPECIFIC

¤charcoal, activated

powder

   

ipecacuanha

syrup, containing 0.14% ipecacuanha alkaloids calculated as emetine

4.2 SPECIFIC

acetylcysteine

injection, 200 mg/ml
in 10-ml ampoule

   

atropine

injection, 1 mg (sulfate)
in 1-ml ampoule

   

calcium gluconate (2, 8)

injection, 100 mg/ml
in 10-ml ampoule

   

deferoxamine

powder for injection, 500 mg
(mesilate) in vial

   

dimercaprol (2)

injection in oil, 50 mg/ml
in 2-ml ampoule

   

¤ DL-methionine

tablet, 250 mg

   

methylthioninium chloride
(methylene blue)

injection, 10 mg/ml
in 10-ml ampoule

   

naloxone

injection, 400 micrograms (hydrochloride)
in 1-ml ampoule

   

penicillamine (2)

capsule or tablet, 250 mg

   

potassium ferric hexacyano-ferrate(II) · 2H2O (Prussian blue)

powder for oral administration

   

sodium calcium edetate (2)

injection, 200 mg/ml
in 5-ml ampoule

   

sodium nitrite

injection, 30 mg/ml
in 10-ml ampoule

   

sodium thiosulfate

injection, 250 mg/ml
in 50-ml ampoule

5: Anticonvulsants/Antiepileptics

carbamazepine (10, 11)

scored tablet, 100 mg, 200 mg

   

¤diazepam (1b)

injection, 5 mg/ml in 2-ml
ampoule (intravenous or rectal)

   

ethosuximide

capsule, 250 mg
syrup, 250 mg/5 ml

   

magnesium sulfate

injection, 500 mg/ml
in 2-ml ampoule
500 mg/ml in 10-ml ampoule

   

phenobarbital (1b, 11)

tablet, 15-100 mg
elixir, 15 mg/5 ml

   

phenytoin (7, 11)

capsule or tablet,
25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg (sodium salt)

injection, 50 mg
(sodium salt)/ml in 5-ml vial

   

valproic acid (7, 11)

enteric coated tablet,
200 mg, 500 mg (sodium salt)

6: Anti-infective Medicines

6.1 ANTHELMINTHICS

6.1.1 INTESTINAL ANTHELMINTHICS

albendazole

chewable tablet, 400 mg

   

levamisole

tablet, 50 mg, 150 mg
(as hydrochloride)

   

¤mebendazole

chewable tablet, 100 mg, 500 mg

   

niclosamide

chewable tablet, 500 mg

   

praziquantel

tablet, 150 mg, 600 mg

   

pyrantel

chewable tablet, 250 mg
(as embonate)

oral suspension, 50 mg
(as embonate)/ml

6.1.2 ANTIFILARIALS

diethylcarbamazine

tablet, 50 mg, 100 mg
(dihydrogen citrate)

   

ivermectin

scored tablet, 3 mg, 6 mg

6.1.3 ANTISCHISTOSOMALS AND OTHER ANTITREMATODE MEDICINES

praziquantel

tablet, 600 mg

   

triclabendazole

tablet, 250 mg

6.2 ANTIBACTERIALS

6.2.1 BETA LACTAM MEDICINES

¤amoxicillin

capsule or tablet, 250 mg,
500 mg (anhydrous)

powder for oral suspension,
125 mg (anhydrous)/5 ml

   

ampicillin

powder for injection, 500 mg,
1 g (as sodium salt) in vial

   

benzathine
benzylpenicillin

powder for injection,
1.44 g benzylpenicillin
(= 2.4 million IU) in 5-ml vial

   

benzylpenicillin

powder for injection,
600 mg (= 1 million IU),
3 g (= 5 million IU)
(sodium or potassium salt) in vial

   

¤cloxacillin

capsule, 500 mg, 1 g (as sodium salt)

powder for oral solution, 125 mg
(as sodium salt)/5 ml

powder for injection, 500 mg
(as sodium salt) in vial

   

phenoxymethylpenicillin

tablet, 250 mg
(as potassium salt)

powder for oral suspension, 250 mg
(as potassium salt)/5 ml

   

procaine benzylpenicillin

powder for injection,
1 g (= 1 million IU),
3 g (= 3 million IU) in vial

6.2.2 OTHER ANTIBACTERIALS

¤chloramphenicol (7)

capsule, 250 mg

oral suspension, 150 mg
(as palmitate)/5 ml

powder for injection, 1 g
(sodium succinate) in vial

   

¤ciprofloxacin

tablet, 250 mg
(as hydrochloride)

   

¤doxycycline (5, 6)

capsule or tablet,
100 mg (hydrochloride)

   

¤erythromycin

capsule or tablet, 250 mg
(as stearate or ethyl succinate)

powder for oral suspension, 125 mg
(as stearate or ethyl succinate)

powder for injection, 500 mg
(as lactobionate) in vial

   

¤gentamicin (2, 4, 7, 11)

injection, 10 mg, 40 mg
(as sulfate)/ml in 2-ml vial

   

¤metronidazole

tablet, 200-500 mg

injection, 500 mg in 100-ml vial

suppository, 500 mg, 1 g

oral suspension, 200 mg
(as benzoate)/5 ml

   

nalidixic acid (8)

tablet, 250 mg, 500 mg

   

nitrofurantoin (4, 8)

tablet, 100 mg

   

spectinomycin (8)

powder for injection, 2 g
(as hydrochloride) in vial

   

¤sulfadiazine (4)

tablet, 500 mg

injection, 250 mg (sodium salt)
in 4-ml ampoule

   

¤sulfamethoxazole +
trimethoprim (4)

tablet, 100 mg + 20 mg,
400 mg + 80 mg

oral suspension,
200 mg + 40 mg/5 ml

injection, 80 mg + 16 mg/ml
in 5-ml and 10-ml ampoule

   

trimethoprim (8)

tablet, 100 mg, 200 mg

injection, 20 mg/ml
in 5-ml ampoule

6.2.3 ANTILEPROSY MEDICINES

clofazimine

capsule, 50 mg, 100 mg

   

dapsone

tablet, 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg

   

rifampicin

capsule or tablet, 150 mg, 300 mg

6.2.4 ANTITUBERCULOSIS MEDICINES

ethambutol (4)

tablet, 100-400 mg
(hydrochloride)

   

isoniazid

tablet, 100-300 mg

   

isoniazid + ethambutol (5)

tablet, 150 mg + 400 mg

   

pyrazinamide

tablet, 400 mg

   

rifampicin

capsule or tablet, 150 mg, 300 mg

   

rifampicin +
isoniazid (5)

tablet, 60 mg + 30 mg, 150 mg + 75 mg,
300 mg + 150 mg

tablet, 60 mg + 60 mg
(for intermittent use 3 times weekly)

tablet, 150 mg + 150 mg
(for intermittent use 3 times weekly)

   

rifampicin + isoniazid +
pyrazinamide (5)

tablet,
60 mg + 30 mg + 150 mg,
150 mg + 75 mg + 400 mg

tablet, 150 mg + 150 mg + 500 mg
(for intermittent use 3 times weekly)

   

rifampicin + isoniazid +
pyrazinamide + ethambutol

tablet, 150 mg + 75 mg +
400 mg + 275 mg

   

streptomycin (4)

powder for injection,
1 g (as sulfate) in vial

6.3 ANTIFUNGAL MEDICINES

amphotericin B (4)

powder for injection, 50 mg in vial

   

¤fluconazole

capsule, 50 mg

injection, 2 mg/ml in vial

oral suspension, 50 mg/5-ml

   

griseofulvin (7)

capsule or tablet, 125 mg, 250 mg

   

nystatin

tablet, 100 000, 500 000 IU

lozenge, 100 000 IU

pessary, 100 000 IU

6.4 ANTIVIRAL MEDICINES

6.4.1 ANTIHERPES MEDICINES

aciclovir (8)

tablet, 200 mg

powder for injection, 250 mg
(as sodium salt) in vial

6.4.2 ANTIRETROVIRALS

Antiretrovirals do not cure HIV infection, they only temporarily suppress viral replication and improve symptoms. They have various adverse effects and patients receiving thisetherapy require careful monitoring by adequately trained health professionals. For these reasons, continuous rigorous promotion of measures to prevent new infections is essential and the need for this has not been diminished in any way by the addition of antiretrovials to the Model List. Adequate resources and trained health professionals are a prerequisite for the introduction of this class of drugs. Effective therapy requires commencement of three or four antiretrovirals simultaneously, and alternative regimens are necessary to meet specific requirements at start-up, to substitute for first-line regimens in the case of toxicity, or to replace failing regimens. The Committee strongly recommends the use of three- or four-combinations as specifically recommended in the WHO treatment guidelines. The use of fixed dose preparations for these combinations is also recommended, with assured pharmaceutical quality and interchangeability with the single products as approved by the relevant drug regulatory authority.

6.4.2.1 NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS*

* Refer to WHO Model Formulary 2002 for full details of dosage form and use (http://www.who.int/medicines/organization/par/formulary)


abacavir (ABC)

tablet, 300 mg (as sulfate)

oral solution, 100 mg (as sulfate)/5 ml

   

didanosine (ddl)

(chewable) tablet, 25 mg,
50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, 200 mg

capsule, 125 mg, 200 mg, 250 mg, 400 mg

powder for oral solution, 100 mg, 167 mg,
250 mg (sachet)

   

lamivudine (3TC)

tablet, 150 mg,

oral solution, 50 mg/5 ml

   

stavudine (d4T)

capsule, 15 mg, 20 mg
30 mg, 40 mg

powder for oral solution, 5 mg/5 ml

   

zidovudine (ZDV or AZT)

tablet, 300 mg

capsule, 100 mg, 250 mg

oral solution or syrup, 50 mg/5 ml

solution for infusion, 10 mg/ml in 20-ml vial

6.4.2.2 NON-NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS*

efavirenz (EFV or EFZ)

capsule, 50 mg,
100 mg, 200 mg

   
 

oral solution, 150 mg/5ml

   

nevirapine (NVP)

tablet, 200 mg
oral suspension, 50 mg/5 ml

6.4.2.3 PROTEASE INHIBITORS*

* Refer to WHO Model Formulary 2002 for full details of dosage form and use (http://www.who.int/medicines/organization/par/formulary)


Selection of two or three protease inhibitors from the Model List will need to be determined by each country after consideration of local treatment guidelines and experience, as well as the comparative costs of available products. Ritonavir is recommended for use in combination with indinavi, lopinavir and saquinavir as a booster, and not as a therapy in its own right.

indinavir (IDV)

capsule, 100 mg, 200 mg,
333 mg, 400 mg (as sulfate)

   

ritonavir (RTV/r)

capsule, 100 mg

   
 

oral solution, 400 mg/5 ml

   

lopinavir (LPV/r) +
ritonavir

capsule, 133.3 mg + 33.3 mg

oral solution, 400 mg/5 ml +
100 mg/5 ml

   

nelfinavir (NFV)

tablet, 250 mg (as mesilate)

   
 

powder, 50 mg (as mesilate)/g

   

saquinavir (SQV)

capsule, 200 mg

6.5 ANTIPROTOZOAL MEDICINES

6.5.1 ANTIAMOEBIC AND ANTIGIARDIASIS MEDICINES

¤ diloxanide

tablet, 500 mg (furoate)

   

¤metronidazole

tablet, 200-500 mg

injection, 500 mg in 100-ml vial

oral suspension, 200 mg
(as benzoate)/5 ml

6.5.2 ANTILEISHMANIASIS MEDICINES

¤meglumine antimoniate

injection, 30%,
equivalent to approx.
8.1% antimony, in 5-ml ampoule

   

pentamidine (5)

powder for injection, 200 mg,
300 mg (isetionate) in vial

6.5.3 ANTIMALARIAL MEDICINES

6.5.3.1 FOR CURATIVE TREATMENT

artemether + lumefantrine

tablet, 20 mg + 120 mg

   

¤chloroquine

tablet, 100 mg, 150 mg
(as phosphate or sulfate)

syrup, 50 mg
(as phosphate or sulfate)/5 ml

injection, 40 mg (as hydro- chloride, phosphate or sulfate)/ml
in 5-ml ampoule

   

primaquine

tablet, 7.5 mg, 15 mg
(as diphosphate)

   

¤quinine

tablet, 300 mg (as bisulfate or sulfate)

injection, 300 mg (as dihydrochloride)/ml
in 2-ml ampoule

6.5.3.2 FOR PROPHYLAXIS

chloroquine

tablet, 150 mg
(as phosphate or sulfate)

syrup, 50 mg (as phosphate or sulfate)/5 ml

   

doxycycline

capsule or tablet,
100 mg (hydrochloride)

   

mefloquine

tablet, 250 mg (as hydrochloride)

   

proguanil (for use only in combination with chloroquine)

tablet, 100 mg
(hydrochloride)

6.5.4 ANTIPNEUMOCYSTOSIS AND ANTITOXOPLASMOSIS MEDICINES

pentamidine (2)

tablet, 200 mg, 300 mg

   

pyrimethamine

tablet, 25 mg

   

sulfamethoxazole +
trimethoprim

injection, 80 mg + 16 mg/ml
in 5-ml ampoule,
80 mg + 16 mg/ml
in 10-ml ampoule

6.5.5 ANTITRYPANOSOMAL MEDICINES

6.5.5.1 AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS

melarsoprol (2)

injection, 3.6% solution

   

pentamidine (2)

powder for injection, 200 mg,
300 mg (isetionate) in vial

   

suramin sodium

powder for injection, 1 g in vial

6.5.5.2 AMERICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS

benznidazole (7)

tablet, 100 mg

   

nifurtimox (2, 8)

tablet, 30 mg, 120 mg, 250 mg

6.6 INSECT REPELLENTS

diethyltoluamide

topical solution, 50%, 75%

7: Antimigraine Medicines

7.1 FOR TREATMENT OF ACUTE ATTACK

acetylsalicylic acid

tablet, 300-500 mg

   

ergotamine (1c) (7)

tablet, 1 mg (tartrate)

   

paracetamol

tablet, 300-500 mg

7.2 FOR PROPHYLAXIS

¤propranolol

tablet, 20 mg, 40 mg
(hydrochloride)

8: Antineoplastic and Immunosuppressive Medicines, and Medicines Used in Palliative Care

8.1 IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE MEDICINES

Please see complementary list.

8.2 CYTOTOXIC MEDICINES

Please see complementary list.

8.3 HORMONES AND ANTIHORMONES

Please see complementary list.

8.4 DRUGS USED IN PALLIATIVE CARE

The WHO Expert Committee on the Selection and Use of Essential Medicines recommended that all the drugs mentioned in the WHO publication Cancer Pain Relief: with a Guide to Opioid Availability, Second edition, be considered essential. The drugs are included in the relevant sections of the Model List according to their therapeutic use, e.g. analgesics.

9: Antiparkinsonism Medicines

¤biperiden

tablet, 2 mg (hydrochloride)

injection, 5 mg (lactate)
in 1-ml ampoule

   

levodopa +
¤carbidopa (5, 6)

tablet, 100 mg + 10 mg,
250 mg + 25 mg

10: Medicines affecting the Blood

10.1 ANTIANAEMIA MEDICINES

ferrous salt

tablet, equivalent to 60 mg iron

oral solution, equivalent to
25 mg iron (as sulfate)/ml

   

ferrous salt + folic acid
(nutritional supplement for use during pregnancy)

tablet, equivalent
to 60 mg iron +
400 microgram folic acid

   

folic acid (2)

tablet, 1 mg, 5 mg

injection, 1 mg (as sodium salt)
in 1-ml ampoule

   

hydroxocobalamin (2)

injection, 1 mg
in 1-ml ampoule

10.2 MEDICINES AFFECTING COAGULATION

desmopressin (8)

injection, 4 micrograms
(acetate)/ml in 1-ml ampoule

nasal spray, 10 micrograms
(acetate)/metered dose

   

heparin sodium

injection, 1000 IU/ml,
5000 IU/ml, 20 000 IU/ml
in 1-ml ampoule

   

phytomenadione

injection, 10 mg/ml
in 5-ml ampoule

tablet, 10 mg

   

protamine sulfate

injection, 10 mg/ml
in 5-ml ampoule

   

¤warfarin (2, 6)

tablet, 1 mg, 2 mg and 5 mg
(sodium salt)

11: Blood Products and Plasma Substitutes

11.1 PLASMA SUBSTITUTES

¤dextran 70

injectable solution, 6%

   

¤polygeline

injectable solution, 3.5%

11.2 PLASMA FRACTIONS FOR SPECIFIC USE

All plasma fractions should comply with the WHO Requirements for the Collection, Processing and Quality Control of Blood, Blood Components, and Plasma Derivitives (Revised 1992). WHO Technical Report Series, No. 840, 1994, Annex 2.

12: Cardiovascular Medicines

12.1 ANTIANGINAL MEDICINES

¤atenolol

tablet, 50 mg, 100 mg

   

glyceryl trinitrate

tablet (sublingual), 500 micrograms

   

¤isosorbide dinitrate

tablet (sublingual), 5 mg

   

¤verapamil (10)

tablet, 40 mg, 80 mg
(hydrochloride)

12.2 ANTIARRHYTHMIC MEDICINES

¤atenolol

tablet, 50 mg, 100 mg

   

digoxin (4, 11)

tablet, 62.5 micrograms,
250 micrograms

oral solution, 50 micrograms/ml

injection, 250 micrograms/ml
in 2-ml ampoule

   

lidocaine

injection, 20 mg
(hydrochloride)/ml
in 5-ml ampoule

   

verapamil (8, 10)

tablet, 40 mg,
80 mg (hydrochloride)

injection, 2.5 mg
(hydrochloride)/ml
in 2-ml ampoule

12.3 ANTIHYPERTENSIVE MEDICINES

¤atenolol

tablet, 50 mg, 100 mg

   

¤captopril

scored tablet, 25 mg

   

¤hydralazine

tablet, 25 mg, 50 mg
(hydrochloride)

powder for injection, 20 mg
(hydrochloride) in ampoule

   

¤hydrochlorothiazide

scored tablet, 25 mg

   

methyldopa (7)

tablet, 250 mg

   

¤nifedipine (10)

sustained-release formulations

tablet, 10 mg

   

¤reserpine

tablet, 100 micrograms,
250 micrograms

injection, 1 mg in 1-ml ampoule

12.4 MEDICINES USED IN HEART FAILURE

¤captopril

scored tablet, 25 mg

   

digoxin (4, 11)

tablet, 62.5 micrograms,
250 micrograms

oral solution, 50 micrograms/ml

injection, 250 micrograms/ml
in 2-ml ampoule

   

dopamine

injection, 40 mg
(hydrochloride) in 5-ml vial

   

¤hydrochlorothiazide

tablet, 25 mg, 50 mg

12.5 ANTITHROMBOTIC MEDICINES

acetylsalicylic acid

tablet, 100 mg

12.6 LIPID-LOWERING AGENTS

The WHO Expert Committee on Selection and Use of Essential Medicines recognizes the value of lipid-lowering drugs in treating patients with hyperlipidaemia. HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, often referred to as "statins", are a family of potent and effective lipid-lowering drugs with a good tolerability profile. Several of these drugs have been shown to reduce the incidence of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke and mortality (all causes), as well as the need for coronary by-pass surgery. All remain very costly but may be cost-effective for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease as well as for primary prevention in some very high-risk patients. Since no single drug has been shown to be significantly more effective or less expensive than others in the group, none is included in the Model List; the choice of drug for use in patients at highest risk should be decided at national level.

13: Dermatological Medicines (topical)

13.1 ANTIFUNGAL MEDICINES

benzoic acid + salicylic acid

ointment or
cream, 6% + 3%

   

¤miconazole

ointment or cream, 2% (nitrate)

   

sodium thiosulfate

solution, 15%

13.2 ANTI-INFECTIVE MEDICINES

¤methylrosanilinium chloride
(gentian violet)

aqueous solution, 0.5%
tincture, 0.5%

   

neomycin sulfate
+ ¤ bacitracin (7)

ointment, 5 mg
neomycin sulfate
+ 500 IU bacitracin zinc/g

   

potassium permanganate

aqueous solution, 1:10 000

   

silver sulfadiazine

cream, 1%, in 500-g container

13.3 ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIPRURITIC MEDICINES

¤betamethasone (3)

ointment or cream,
0.1% (as valerate)

   

¤calamine lotion

lotion

   

¤hydrocortisone

ointment or cream, 1% (acetate)

13.4 ASTRINGENT MEDICINES

aluminium diacetate

solution, 13% for dilution

13.5 MEDICINES AFFECTING SKIN DIFFERENTIATION AND PROLIFERATION

benzoyl peroxide

lotion or cream, 5%

   

coal tar

solution, 5%

   

dithranol

ointment, 0.1-2%

   

fluorouracil

ointment, 5%

   

¤podophyllum resin (7)

solution, 10-25%

   

salicylic acid

solution 5%

   

urea

ointment or cream, 10%

13.6 SCABICIDES AND PEDICULICIDES

¤benzyl benzoate

lotion, 25%

   

permethrin

cream, 5%
lotion, 1%

13.7 ULTRAVIOLET-BLOCKING AGENTS

Please see complementary list

14: Diagnostic Agents

14.1 OPHTHALMIC MEDICINES

fluorescein

eye drops, 1% (sodium salt)

   

¤tropicamide

eye drops, 0.5%

14.2 RADIOCONTRAST MEDIA

¤amidotrizoate

injection, 140-420 mg iodine
(as sodium or meglumine salt)/ml in 20-ml ampoule

   

barium sulfate

aqueous suspension

   

¤iohexol

injection, 140-350 mg iodine/ml
in 5-ml, 10-ml and 20-ml ampoule

   

¤iopanoic acid

tablet, 500 mg

   

¤propyliodone
(For administration only into the bronchial tree).

oily suspension,
500-600 mg/ml
in 20-ml ampoule

15: Disinfectants and Antiseptics

15.1 ANTISEPTICS

¤chlorhexidine

solution, 5%
(digluconate) for dilution

   

¤ethanol

solution, 70% (denatured)

   

¤polyvidone iodine

solution, 10%

15.2 DISINFECTANTS

¤chlorine base compound

powder (0.1% available chlorine) for solution

   

¤chloroxylenol

solution, 4.8%

   

glutaral

solution, 2%

16: Diuretics

¤amiloride (4, 7, 8)

tablet, 5 mg (hydrochloride)

   

¤furosemide

tablet, 40 mg

injection, 10 mg/ml in
2-ml ampoule

   

¤hydrochlorothiazide

tablet, 25 mg, 50 mg

   

spironolactone (8)

tablet, 25 mg

17: Gastrointestinal Medicines

17.1 ANTACIDS AND OTHER ANTIULCER MEDICINES

aluminium hydroxide

tablet, 500 mg

oral suspension, 320 mg/5 ml

   

¤cimetidine

tablet, 200 mg

injection, 200 mg in 2-ml ampoule

   

magnesium hydroxide

oral suspension,
equivalent to 550 mg
magnesium oxide/10 ml

17.2 ANTIEMETIC MEDICINES

metoclopramide

tablet, 10 mg (hydrochloride)
injection, 5 mg (hydrochloride)/ml
in 2-ml ampoule

   

¤promethazine

tablet, 10 mg,
25 mg (hydrochloride)

elixir or syrup, 5 mg
(hydrochloride)/5 ml

injection, 25 mg (hydrochloride)/ml
in 2-ml ampoule

17.3 ANTIHAEMORRHOIDAL MEDICINES

¤local anaesthetic, astringent and anti-inflammatory drug

ointment
or suppository

17.4 ANTI-INFLAMMATORY MEDICINES

hydrocortisone

suppository, 25 mg
(acetate)

¤retention enema

   

¤sulfasalazine (2)

tablet, 500 mg

suppository, 500 mg

retention enema

17.5 ANTISPASMODIC MEDICINES

¤atropine

tablet, 1 mg (sulfate)

injection, 1 mg (sulfate)
in 1-ml ampoule

17.6 LAXATIVES

¤senna

tablet, 7.5 mg (sennosides)
(or traditional dosage forms)

17.7 MEDICINESUSED IN DIARRHOEA

17.7.1 ORAL REHYDRATION

oral rehydration salts (for glucose- electrolyte solution)

powder, 27.9 g/l

   

Components to reconstitute one litre of glucose electrolyte solution

g/l

   

sodium chloride

3.5

trisodium citrate dihydrate*

2.9

potassium chloride

1.5

glucose

20.0

 

*Trisodium citrate dihydrate may be replaced by sodium bicarbonate (sodium hydrogen carbonate).


17.7.2 ANTIDIARRHOEAL (SYMPTOMATIC) MEDICINES

¤codeine (1a)

tablet, 30 mg (phosphate)

18: Hormones, other Endocrine Medicines and Contraceptives

18.1 ADRENAL HORMONES AND SYNTHETIC SUBSTITUTES

¤dexamethasone

tablet, 500 micrograms, 4 mg

injection, 4 mg dexamethasone
phosphate (as disodium salt)
in 1-ml ampoule

   

hydrocortisone

powder for injection, 100 mg
(as sodium succinate) in vial

   

¤prednisolone

tablet, 1 mg, 5 mg

18.2 ANDROGENS

18.3 CONTRACEPTIVES

18.3.1 HORMONAL CONTRACEPTIVES

¤ethinylestradiol +

tablet, 30 micrograms +

   

¤levonorgestrel

150 micrograms,

   

¤ethinylestradiol +

tablet, 50 micrograms

   

¤levonorgestrel

+ 250 micrograms (pack of four)

   

¤ethinylestradiol +

tablet, 35 micrograms + 1.0 mg

   

¤norethisterone

 
   

levonorgestrel

tablet, 0.75 mg (pack of two)

18.3.2 INTRAUTERINE DEVICES copper-containing device

18.3.3 BARRIER METHODS condoms with or without spermicide (nonoxinol+) diaphragms with spermicide (nonoxinol+)

+See also page 120 for further information.


18.4 ESTROGENS

¤ethinylestradiol

tablet, 10 micrograms,
50 micrograms

18.5 INSULINS AND OTHER ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS

¤glibenclamide

tablet, 2.5 mg, 5 mg

   

insulin injection (soluble)

injection,
40 IU/ml in 10-ml vial,
100 IU/ml in 10-ml vial

   

intermediate-acting insulin

injection,
40 IU/ml in 10-ml vial,
100 IU/ml in 10-ml vial
(as compound insulin zinc suspension or isophane insulin)

   

metformin

tablet, 500 mg (hydrochloride)

18.6 OVULATION INDUCERS

¤clomifene (2, 8)

tablet, 50 mg (citrate)

18.7 PROGESTOGENS

norethisterone

tablet, 5 mg

18.8 THYROID HORMONES AND ANTITHYROID DRUGS

levothyroxine

tablet, 50 micrograms,
100 micrograms
(sodium salt)

   

potassium iodide

tablet, 60 mg

   

¤propylthiouracil

tablet, 50 mg

19: Immunologicals

19.1 DIAGNOSTIC AGENTS

All tuberculins should comply with the WHO Requirements for Tuberculins (Revised 1985). WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization Thirty-sixth report (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 745, 1987, Annex 1).

tuberculin,
purified protein derivative (PPD)

injection

19.2 SERA AND IMMUNOGLOBULINS

All plasma fractions should comply with the WHO Requirements for the Collection, Processing and Quality Control of Blood, Blood Components and Plasma Derivatives (Revised 1992). WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization Forty-third report (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 840, 1994, Annex 2).

anti-D immunoglobulin
(human)

injection, 250 micrograms in
single-dose vial

   

¤antitetanus immunoglobulin
(human)

injection, 500 IU
in vial

   

antivenom serum

injection

   

diphtheria antitoxin

injection, 10 000 IU,
20 000 IU in vial

   

immunoglobulin,
human normal (2)

injection (intramuscular)

   

immunoglobulin,
human normal (2, 8)

injection (intravenous)

   

¤rabies immunoglobulin

injection, 150 IU/ml

19.3 VACCINES

All vaccines should comply with the WHO Requirements for Biological Substances.

19.3.1 FOR UNIVERSAL IMMUNIZATION

BCG vaccine
diphtheria vaccine
hepatitis B vaccine
measles vaccine
pertussis vaccine
poliomyelitis vaccine
tetanus vaccine

19.3.2 FOR SPECIFIC GROUPS OF INDIVIDUALS

influenza vaccine
meningococcal meningitis vaccine
mumps vaccine
rabies vaccine (inactivated: prepared in cell culture)
rubella vaccine
typhoid vaccine
yellow fever vaccine

20: Muscle Relaxants (peripherally acting) and Cholinesterase Inhibitors

¤alcuronium chloride (2)

injection, 5 mg/ml
in 2-ml ampoule

   

¤neostigmine

tablet, 15 mg (bromide)

injection, 500 micrograms, 2.5 mg
(metilsulfate) in 1-ml ampoule

   

pyridostigmine (2, 8)

tablet, 60 mg (bromide)

injection, 1 mg
in 1-ml ampoule

   

suxamethonium (2)

injection, 50 mg (chloride)/ml
in 2-ml ampoule

powder for injection

21: Ophthalmological Preparations

21.1 ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS

¤gentamicin

solution (eye drops), 0.3%
(sulfate)

   

¤idoxuridine

solution (eye drops), 0.1%
eye ointment, 0.2%

   

silver nitrate

solution (eye drops), 1%

   

¤tetracycline

eye ointment, 1% (hydrochloride)

21.2 ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS

¤prednisolone

solution (eye drops), 0.5%
(sodium phosphate)

21.3 LOCAL ANAESTHETICS

¤tetracaine

solution (eye drops), 0.5%
(hydrochloride)

21.4 MIOTICS AND ANTIGLAUCOMA DRUGS

acetazolamide

tablet, 250 mg

   

¤pilocarpine

solution (eye drops), 2%, 4%
(hydrochloride or nitrate)

   

¤timolol

solution (eye drops), 0.25%, 0.5%
(as maleate)

21.5 MYDRIATICS

atropine

solution (eye drops),
0.1%, 0.5%, 1% (sulfate)

22: Oxytocics and Antioxytocics

22.1 OXYTOCICS

ergometrine

tablet, 200 micrograms
(hydrogen maleate)

injection, 200 micrograms
(hydrogen maleate)
in 1-ml ampoule

   

oxytocin

injection, 10 IU in 1-ml ampoule

22.2 ANTIOXYTOCICS

¤salbutamol (2)

tablet, 4 mg (as sulfate)

injection, 50 micrograms
(as sulfate)/ml
in 5-ml ampoule

23: Peritoneal Dialysis Solution

intraperitoneal dialysis solution
(of appropriate composition)

parenteral solution

24: Psychotherapeutic Medicines

24.1 MEDICINES USED IN PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS

¤chlorpromazine

tablet, 100 mg (hydrochloride)

syrup, 25 mg
(hydrochloride)/5 ml

injection, 25 mg
(hydrochloride)/ml in 2-ml ampoule

   

¤fluphenazine (5)

injection, 25 mg
(decanoate or enantate)
in 1-ml ampoule

   

¤haloperidol

tablet, 2 mg, 5 mg

injection, 5 mg in
1-ml ampoule

24.2 MEDICINES USED IN MOOD DISORDERS

24.2.1 MEDICINES USED IN DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS

¤amitriptyline

tablet, 25 mg (hydrochloride)

24.2.2 MEDICINES USED IN BIPOLAR DISORDERS

carbamazepine (10, 11)

scored tablet, 100 mg, 200 mg

   

lithium carbonate (2, 4)

capsule or tablet, 300 mg

   

valproic acid (7, 11)

enteric coated tablet,
200 mg, 500 mg (sodium salt)

24.3 MEDICINES USED IN GENERALIZED ANXIETY AND SLEEP DISORDERS

¤diazepam (1b)

scored tablet, 2 mg, 5 mg

24.4 MEDICINES USED IN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDERS AND PANIC ATTACKS

clomipramine

capsules, 10 mg, 25 mg
(hydrochloride)

25: Medicines Acting on the Respiratory Tract

25.1 ANTIASTHMATIC MEDICINES

¤aminophylline (2)

injection, 25 mg/ml
in 10-ml ampoule

   

¤beclometasone

inhalation (aerosol), 50 micrograms,
250 micrograms,
(dipropionate) per dose

   

¤epinephrine (adrenaline)

injection, 1 mg
(as hydrochloride or hydrogen tartrate) in 1-ml ampoule

   

ipratropium bromide

inhalation (aerosol),
20 micrograms/metered dose

   

¤salbutamol

tablet, 2 mg, 4 mg (as sulfate)

inhalation (aerosol), 100 micrograms
(as sulfate) per dose

syrup, 2 mg (as sulfate)/5 ml
injection, 50 micrograms (as sulfate)/ml
in 5-ml ampoule

respiratory solution for use in nebulizers,
5 mg (as sulfate)/ml

   

theophylline (10, 11)

tablet, 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg

25.2 ANTITUSSIVES

¤dextromethorphan

oral solution,
3.5 mg (bromide)/5 ml

26: Solutions correcting Water, Electrolyte and Acid-base Disturbances

26.1 ORAL

oral rehydration salts (for glucose-electrolyte solution)

for composition
see section 17.7.1

   

potassium chloride

powder for solution

26.2 PARENTERAL

glucose

injectable solution,
5% isotonic, 10% isotonic,
50% hypertonic

   

glucose with sodium chloride

injectable solution, 4%
glucose, 0.18% sodium chloride
(equivalent to Na+ 30 mmol/l Cl- 30 mmol/l)

   

potassium chloride (2)

11.2% solution in
20-ml ampoule, (equivalent to K+ 1.5 mmol/ml, Cl- 1.5 mmol/ml)

   

sodium chloride

injectable solution, 0.9%
isotonic (equivalent to Na+ 154 mmol/l, Cl- 154 mmol/l)

   

sodium hydrogen carbonate

injectable solution, 1.4%
isotonic (equivalent to Na+ 167 mmol/l, HCO3- 167 mmol/l)

solution, 8.4% in 10-ml ampoule
(equivalent to Na+ 1000 mmol/l, HCO3- 1000 mmol/l)

   

¤sodium lactate, compound solution

injectable solution

26.3 MISCELLANEOUS

water for injection

2-ml, 5-ml, 10-ml ampoules

27: Vitamins and Minerals

ascorbic acid

tablet, 50 mg

   

¤ergocalciferol

capsule or tablet, 1.25 mg
(50 000 IU)

oral solution,
250 micrograms/ml (10 000 IU/ml)

   

iodine (8)

iodized oil, 1 ml (480 mg iodine),
0.5 ml (240 mg iodine) in
ampoule (oral or injectable)

solution, 0.57 ml, (308 mg iodine)
in dispenser bottle

capsule, 200 mg

   

¤nicotinamide

tablet, 50 mg

   

pyridoxine

tablet, 25 mg (hydrochloride)

   

¤retinol

sugar-coated tablet, 10 000 IU
(as palmitate) (5.5 mg)

capsule, 200 000 IU (as palmitate) (110 mg)

oral oily solution,
100 000 IU/ml in multidose
dispenser (as palmitate)

water-miscible injection,
100 000 IU (as palmitate)
(55 mg) in 2-ml ampoule

   

riboflavin

tablet, 5 mg

   

¤sodium fluoride

in any appropriate formulation

   

thiamine

tablet, 50 mg (hydrochloride)

The following additions to the WHO Model List (both core and complementary lists) have been approved by the WHO Expert Committee on the Selection and Use of Essential Medicines. The report of the meeting will be published in the WHO Technical Report Series.

abacavir, didanosine, lamivudine, stavudine, efavirenz, indinavir, ritonavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, artemether + lumefantrine, amikacin, p-aminosalicylic acid, capreomycin, cycloserine, ethionamide, kanamycin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin.

Ir a la sección anterior
Ir a la siguiente sección
 
 
El Portal de Información - Medicamentos Esenciales y Productos de Salud de la OMS fue diseñado y es mantenido por la ONG Human Info. Última actualización: le 29 octubre 2018