The following roles were identified to enable pharmacists to support the health care system and to respond to patient needs in Southern and Eastern African countries:
• custodian of essential drugs and other medicines;
• formulator, manufacturer, distributor and controller of safe, effective and quality drug products;
• adviser on safe, rational and appropriate use of essential drugs and medicines;
• provider of relevant clinical services, including screening and referral services;
• identifier of problems related to drug therapies and finder of possible solutions;
• provider of health education and information;
• provider of pharmaceutical care by taking responsibility for treatment outcomes;
• designer, implementer and evaluator of pharmaceutical care plans;
• provider of cost-effective and efficient pharmaceutical services.
Schools of pharmacy should have UPCs that train students in these roles during the planned academic courses.