The above figures are rough measures for injection prevalence. More meaningful is to assess to which extent illnesses, occurring in the research population, are being treated with injections. In both countries, one or more cases of illness were reported in some 70% of the households over the past two weeks. Injection rates, however, varied from some 40% of households with a report of illness (Uganda) to some 60% in Indonesia.
In Uganda, cases of illness which had occurred in the household in the past two weeks were recorded during the follow-up visit. In Busoga, 239 of 360 households (66%) and in Ankole 252 out of 360 households (70%) reported an illness case. There are no statistical differences in illness rates between the region (p=0.05). In Busoga, out of these 239 households with one or more ill subjects, 93 reported to have used injections (39%). In Ankole the injection rate in households with ill subjects is slightly higher: 43% (108/252), but this difference is not statistically significant (p=0.05).
In Indonesia, more households in Lebak (324 out of 407 households; 80%) reported illness in the past two weeks than in Lombok (287 of 409 households; 70%). The reported illness rates in Lebak are significantly higher than in Lombok (*p=0.01). This can be explained by the fact that households in Lebak have a larger number of members than in Lombok (*p=0.01), thereby increasing the chance of having one or more sick members in the household19.
19When the illness rates of the total research population in both regions were compared, no statistical differences could be found. The illness rates in Lebak is 24% of all household members; in Lombok 21% (p=0.05).
Injection rates in the ill population are significantly higher in Lombok than in Lebak. In Lebak, 172 out of 324 households with illness cases reported injection use (53%) and in Lombok 182/287 (63%) (*p=0.01). How can this be explained? More refined analysis of the Indonesian data reveals that when ill, people in Lombok attend health facilities more frequently, and that injection rates in these health facilities are significantly higher than in Lebak.