The main objectives of the injection practices research project were to 2:
• estimate the extent to which injections are used as a route for the administration of medications,
• determine the type and degree of improper and unsafe practices in the process of administration of injections,
• gain insight into why injections are so popular,
• develop a simple, and rapid survey methodology for future assessments of inappropriate injection use.
2 Adapted from the Provisional Research Protocol published in the Report of an Informal Workshop on Injection Practices Research, (WHO/DAP/91.8) Geneva 1991.
For the first two objectives, specific research questions were formulated (Appendix 1.A) and quantitative and qualitative research methods have been used (Appendix 2.A and 2.B). The third objective required in-depth anthropological research which was not possible within the scope of the present study. To explore this issue, a literature reviewed was performed, complemented with exploratory interviews with key informants and focus-group discussions in the field studies. The research design was flexible, allowing country teams to adapt the design to their local context. A number of common injection use measures were developed on the prevalence and the evaluation of injection use in order to assure comparison. These indicators are given in Appendix 1.B. The standards used for assessing hygienic practices are presented in Appendix 1.C.