35Injection practices research, WHO/DAP/92. 9: 9-11.
During the first workshop of the Injection Practices Research (1990), the following research questions were formulated:
Concerning the types of health care providers administering injections:
1a - Which health care institutions and which practitioners are administering injections in a certain region?
1b - Which institutions and practitioners - both formal and informal - are most often visited by people for injections?
Concerning the distribution channels of injections:
2a - Where do the institutions and practitioners obtain the injections that they administer to patients? Do they obtain the injections from a government source, or from the commercial private sector?
Concerning the indications for which injections are generally used:
3a - What are the main indications for which the health care providers are administering injections?
3b - What are the disorders for which people seek injection treatment?
3c - Why are injections chosen for these indications?
Concerning the appropriateness of injection use:
4a - To what extent do people use injections to treat tracer conditions, defined as:
• cough and common cold in any age
• acute diarrhoea, less than five watery stools per day, in children under five and an additional three indications identified by the country teams, which do not warrant injection treatment?
4b - Why are injections administered in the above five tracer conditions, while their use is not medically justified?
4c - Which types of injections are used in the treatment of the five tracer conditions?
4d - To what extent are injections administered in sub-standard hygienic conditions?
Concerning the reputed efficacy of injection use:
5a - What is the expected effect/or experienced effect of the injectable medication?
5b - Why did the provider choose an injection instead of an oral medication?
5c - Why did the user prefer an injection instead of an oral medication?
5d - Why are injections administered in an unhygienic manner? Do people lack training? Do they lack resources?