In summary, we can state here that it is rather impossible to meet optimum hygienic standards in Uganda, owing mainly to the personalization of injection equipment. This process fundamentally breaks the sterile chain as patients often present their personal, reused, disposable sets of needles and syringes at the provider facilities. There are also indications of use of the same equipment on multiple patients, poor disposal and inadequate sterilization both at home and at provider facilities. Our results clearly indicate that a high percentage of provider facilities in both regions do not meet the required minimum standards of hygiene at each stage of injection administration. On the whole, NGO health facilities meet the highest hygienic standards. These units have cleaner environs than other provider facilities. Although drugs and other supply inputs are essentially the same for the NGO and government facilities, the equipment, including fuel for sterilization, is better managed at NGO facilities.