This study was part of a three-country study on adherence to ART, which included Botswana, Tanzania and Uganda. The study proposals were submitted by participants of a WHO-run workshop on Promoting Rational Drug Use in the Community, conducted in Pretoria, South Africa, in September 2004. The proposals were appraised using a collaborative peer review process, following which research tools were designed at a workshop involving all three countries in Bagamoyo, Tanzania, in February 2005. Fieldwork took place in May and June 2005, and an analysis workshop for the Botswana team was held in Gaborone in July. The report was then prepared and finalized following a third workshop in Jinja, Uganda, attended by all three country teams. Technical advice was provided throughout by the Medical Anthropology Unit, University of Amsterdam, and by WHO.