Complex Determinants of Inappropriate Use of Antibiotics. (Bull World Health Organ 2018;96:141–144)
(2018; 4 pages)


Inappropriate use of antibiotics in humans and agriculture is one of the drivers of the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The prevalence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci, macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes strongly correlates with total antibiotic use in outpatients.2 Such inappropriate use is the result of complex interactions between demand for and supply of antibiotics. The use of antibiotics in the retail sector, for example in pharmacies and drugstores, the healthcare sector and in farms involves both professional and unqualified personnel from various sectors. These personnel operate within their country-specific regulatory environments and have different economic incentives.

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