- Keywords > drug-resistant tuberculosis - diagnosis and management
- Keywords > leprosy
- Keywords > managing TB/HIV co-infection
- Keywords > Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB)
- Keywords > national treatment guidelines
- Keywords > national tuberculosis control programmes
- Keywords > respiratory guidelines
- Keywords > TB treatment policies
- Keywords > treatment - children
- Keywords > tuberculosis
(2014; 89 pages)
The HIV epidemic is a challenge to the traditional approaches to TB control. It is widely acknowledged that TB is the most common opportunistic infection and a leading cause of death in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). It is estimated that between 30% and 40% of PLWHA living in high burden TB settings will develop TB in their lifetime. Since a lot of patients visiting health care facilities have low immunity, and most of them are unaware, transmission of TB within health care settings is real. In addition, a lot of health care workers could be infected with HIV or with TB and transmission to and from them is real.
Health care workers are at increased risk of TB infection and disease compared to the general population. Other patients, non-medical staffs in health care settings are also at risk. Health care settings especially presents risk of TB transmission from those who are undiagnosed pulmonary TB patients with cough are in close contact with patients and health care workers. Overcrowding and poorly ventilated environments increase this risk. Waiting rooms or corridors where patients wait to receive medical care including medical wards where undiagnosed TB patients admitted are often areas of particular risk.
The primary audiences for this document are the health care providers in health care facilities and community settings. This document focuses on health care settings, as well as other areas where TB transmission is likely to occur such as Prisons, informal settlements, networks of people living with HIV and AIDS and mental health institutions.
This document provides guidelines and recommendations for infection control for health care worker, congregate setting and the community. The recommendations are structured according to the standard priorities of infection prevention and control practices, namely: administrative control measures, environmental control measures and personal protective equipment (Respiratory protection).