- All > Medicine Access and Rational Use > Pricing
- All > Public Health, Innovation, Intellectual Property and Trade > Intellectual Property (IP) and Trade
- Keywords > access to antiretroviral treatment
- Keywords > access to antiretrovirals (ARVs)
- Keywords > compulsory licences
- Keywords > Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
- Keywords > patent and licensing status - ARV
- Keywords > patents
- Keywords > price trend - ARVs
- Keywords > prices / pricing policy
- Keywords > tariffs, prices and access to medicines
- Keywords > voluntary licences
(2014; 56 pages)
The paper provides information on the prices paid by 20 middle-income countries for adult and paediatric formulations of antiretroviral treatments recommended by WHO. It links this information with an analysis of the intellectual property situation of the selected medicines taking into account existing license agreements as well as compulsory licenses, and includes data and general information on a number of other determinants of prices and availability of ARVs, including tariffs, markups and taxes, as well as the regulatory status.
The data show that the middle-income countries are a heterogeneous group and that procurement prices vary widely. Middle-income countries supported by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, including India and middle-income countries in Africa, are paying low prices for first-line and many second-line treatment regimens, comparable to those paid by low-income countries. Other middle-income countries are paying higher prices, especially for newer second line and third line treatments sourced from originator producers.