Objective: To develop an indicator-based tool for systematic assessment and
reporting of good pharmacy practice (GPP).
Method: The tool comprises of a) a set of indicators, b) an indicator and survey
manual, c) a data collection sheet, and d) Microsoft
Excel based data collection and analysis tool. We developed a set of 34 pharmacy
practice (PP) indicators using an iterative process to
test their functionality in various pharmacy practice settings in Ethiopia,
Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected on the basis of
direct observations, record reviews, interviews and simulated clients in
surveyed facilities by trained survey teams.
Results: The indicator-based survey assessed fi ve components of pharmacy
practice: system, storage, services, dispensing and rational
drug use. The manual and a data collection sheet were introduced in the training
of surveyors and used as a reference to ensure
clear understanding of indicator defi nitions and a uniform method of sampling
and scoring. An Excel-based tool was developed for
systematic data sampling and analysis. The survey results are presented in
numbers and visualised in histograms and spidographs
showing an assessed score against an ‘ideal’ GPP score. This indicator based
tool proved to be simple and easy to use when assessing
the various features of GPP.
Conclusions: The new GPP indicator-based assessment tool proved to be an easily
applicable tool for uniform assessments of
pharmacy practices and identifi cation of problem areas. It allows for both
intra- and inter-country comparison and for self-assessment.
However, the indicators need to be further developed to test their applicability
in developed countries. Moreover, research is needed to
develop and validate additional indicators, especially those measuring ‘patient
care’ including ‘patient/customer satisfaction’, and ‘self
medication’ and to refi ne the existing indicators. It will also be important to
defi ne core (‘obligatory’) and complementary indicators.