Strong supply chains are essential to effective health care delivery in all sectors—public, faith-based, employer-provided, and private. In the countries of the Organisation for Cooperation and Development (OECD), supply chains rely heavily on the private sector for supply, distribution, and provision of key auxiliary services even when the health system itself is largely or exclusively public sector. These supply chains work quite well in ensuring consistent availability of high-quality product. In contrast, health supply chains in many low- and middle-income countries perform poorly and have less private sector involvement. This observation leads us to ask: How might a greater role for the private sector, greater leveraging of private sector supply chain best practices, or a combination of the two improve health supply chains in low- and middle-income countries?