Comparative Analysis of National Drug Policies - Second Workshop Geneva, 10-13 June 1996 - EDM Research Series No. 025
(1997; 175 pages) View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentExecutive summary
View the documentI. Introduction
Close this folderII. Background on the research project
View the document1. Research questions and objectives of the study
View the document2. Study approach and research tools
View the document3. Project past activities
Open this folder and view contentsIII. Second workshop
Open this folder and view contentsIV. Preliminary findings
Open this folder and view contentsV. Conclusions of the workshop and follow-up plans
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 1: Research proposal
View the documentAnnex 2: List of participants
View the documentAnnex 3: Agenda
View the documentAnnex 4: Questionnaire on NDP performance assessment
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 5: Achievements of the national drug policies in the 12 countries
View the documentAnnex 6: Consolidated tables
View the documentOther documents in the DAP Research Series

2. Study approach and research tools

The research provided a cross national, comparative framework. Cross national comparison can assist in placing a single country's experiences within a broader international context, and can help explain both the particular features of a country's policy and more universal aspects of policy-making.

The research combines formative evaluation strategies (focusing on the process of policy formulation and implementation) and summative evaluation strategies (focusing on policy outcomes). The two main research tools used are standardized NDP indicators - for assessment of NDP performance; and political mapping - for the analysis of NDP formulation and implementation processes. Group evaluation is also part of the methods used. These methods are described more in detail in the boxes below and in the research protocol (see Annex 1).

Method 1: Standardized NDP indicators

The indicators are derived from the WHO manual on Indicators for monitoring national drug policies (WHO/DAP/94.12). The indicators serve two purposes in the research:

• to assess the implementation of NDP by measuring progress in key components (structural and process indicators);
• to evaluate the outcomes of NDP (outcome indicators).

Background information

Structural indicators

Process indicators

Outcome indicators





Population data
Economic data
Health status data
Health system data
Human resources
Drug sector organization

Legislation and regulation
Essential drugs selection and drug registration
Drug allocation in the health budget/public sector financing policy
Public sector procurement procedures
Public sector distribution and logistics
Pricing policy
Information and continuing education on drug use

Availability of essential drugs
Accessibility of essential drugs
Quality of drugs
Rational use of drugs

Method 2: Political mapping

The use of political mapping has three main goals in the research:

• to assess the organizational and political determinants of the policy process;
• to help explain the strengths and weaknesses identified by the indicators; and
• to assist in identifying and assessing strategies to improve pharmaceutical policy implementation.

As described in the research protocol, the methodology has descriptive, explanatory, and prescriptive objectives: to describe the consequences, stakeholders, interests, and networks involved in the national drug policy; to help explain how and why a particular decision was reached in the past; and to assist decision-makers in managing the politics of formulation or implementation.

to previous section
to next section
The WHO Essential Medicines and Health Products Information Portal was designed and is maintained by Human Info NGO. Last updated: December 6, 2017