This report is a result of the collective efforts of Member States, government institutions, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations and individual professionals, whose contribution to the study is greatly appreciated.
The Action Programme on Essential Drugs (DAP) and the Division of Drug Management and Policies (DMP) carried out the study jointly with the financial assistance of the Office of Health, US Agency for International Development (USAID).
The study was initiated by Dr F.S. Antezana, Assistant Director-General (ADG) of the World Health Organization in 1992. At the time of commencement, he was the Director of DAP.
The methodology for the study was planned and developed with the suggestions, guidance and full participation of:
Dr F.S. Antezana, ADG, WHO
Ms Lois Ann Beaver, United States Food and Drug Administration, USA
Mr Anthony F. Boni, USAID, USA
Mrs Maire Casey-Stapleton, UK
Mrs Margaretha Helling-Borda, Director, DAP, WHO
Mr Steinar Holand, DAP, WHO
Dr J. Idänpään-Heikkilä, Associate Director, DMP, WHO
Dr D. Magrath, Chief, Biologicals, DMP, WHO
Dr A. Mechkovski, Chief, Quality Assurance, DMP, WHO
Mr James Rankin, Management Sciences for Health, USA
Mr Edwin Rivera-Martinez, United States Food and Drug Administration, USA
Ms Agathe Wehrli, Chief, Regulatory Support, DMP, WHO
Dr Witold Wieniawski, Polish Pharmacopoeia Commission, Poland.
The Ministries of Health of: Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ecuador, Fiji, France, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Malawi, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tunisia, Yemen; the International Dispensary Association (IDA), the Netherlands, and the United Nations Children's Fund, Supply Division, Denmark, willingly participated in the study.
Participants in the field visits were:
International team members:
Dr Marcelo Vernengo, Argentina; Mr Pascal Coffi Hessou, Benin; Mr Anacet Baza, Burundi;
Mr E. Kkolos, Cyprus; Mr Eshetu Wondemagegnehu, Ethiopia; Mr Patric Becu, France;
Dr Prem Gupta, India; Yeap Boon Chye, Malaysia, Dr Witold Wieniawski, Poland;
Ms Amy Lim and Mr Yip Lung Wong, Singapore; Mr E. Rivera-Martinez, USA;
Mr Aidan Chidarikire, Zimbabwe.
National team members:
Mr Eugène K. Déguénon and Mr Adolphe Topanou, Benin; Mr Ngueleze and Mr Ndo Jean Rollin Bertrand, Cameroon; Mr Jacob Ngaba and Mr David Kilayo, Central African Republic; Dr Elvira Marchan and Dr Federico Santos, Ecuador; Mr Murray Patterson, Fiji; Ms Grace Allen and Mrs Henry, Jamaica; Dr K. Baya and Dr E. Kamania, Kenya; Dr Hadida Bte Hashim, Malaysia; Mr P.S.P. Tembo and Mr W.C. Chalira, Malawi; Mr U. Myint Thein and Dr Maw Thein, Myanmar; Mr D.Gwillim and Mrs D. Tuka, Papua New Guinea; Dr S. Tennakoon and Mr Hsk Sirisena, Sri Lanka; Mr J.S. Muhume and Mr L.R. Mhangwa, Tanzania; Dr Iddir Kameleddine and Dr Jaleleddine Hila, Tunisia; Dr Mohamed Said Shaibani and Dr Hussein Al-Kataa, Yemen.
Analysis of the data and writing of the first draft report were done by Dr E. Somers, Dr Witold Wieniawski and Mr Eshetu Wondemagegnehu.
Comments received from countries, organizations and individuals were incorporated into the draft report by Mr Eshetu Wondemagegnehu who also finalised the report.
Mrs M. Helling-Borda and Mr Eshetu Wondemagegnehu were responsible for coordination of the study.
The study would have not been successfully completed without the cooperation and assistance of the drug regulatory authorities of both the importing and exporting countries and the WHO Regional Offices and the WHO Representative Offices of the countries involved in the assessment.