General Guidelines for Methodologies on Research and Evaluation of Traditional Medicine
(2000; 80 pages) [French] [Spanish] View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentForeword
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction
Open this folder and view contents1. Methodologies for Research and Evaluation of Herbal Medicines
Open this folder and view contents2. Methodologies for Research and Evaluation of Traditional Procedure-Based Therapies
Open this folder and view contents3. Clinical Research
Open this folder and view contents4. Other Issues and Considerations
View the documentReferences
Open this folder and view contentsAnnexes
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex I. Guidelines for the Assessment of Herbal Medicinesa
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex II. Research Guidelines for Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Medicinesa
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex III. Report of a WHO Consultation on Traditional Medicine and AIDS: Clinical Evaluation of Traditional Medicines and Natural Productsa
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex IV. Definition of Levels of Evidence and Grading of Recommendationa
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex V. Guidelines for Levels and Kinds of Evidence to Support Claims for Therapeutic Goodsa
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex VI. Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice (GCP) for Trials on Pharmaceutical Productsa
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex VII. Guidance for Industry: Significant Scientific Agreement in the Review of Health Claims for Conventional Foods and Dietary Supplementsa
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex VIII. Guideline for Good Clinical Practicea
Close this folderAnnex IX. WHO QOL (Quality of Life) User Manual: Facet Definitions and Response Scalesa
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentOverall Quality of Life and Health
View the documentDomain I - Physical Domain
View the documentDomain II - Psychological
View the documentDomain III - Level of Independence
View the documentDomain IV - Social Relationships
View the documentDomain V - Environment
View the documentDomain VI - Spirituality/Religion/Personal Beliefs
View the documentResponse Scales
View the documentAnnex X. Participants in the WHO Consultation on Methodologies for Research and Evaluation of Traditional Medicine

Domain IV - Social Relationships

13. Personal relationships

This facet examines the extent to which people feel the companionship, love and support they desire from the intimate relationship(s) in their life. This facet also addresses commitment to and current experience of caring for and providing for other people.

This facet includes the ability and opportunity to love, to be loved and to be intimate with others both emotionally and physically. The extent to which people feel they can share moments of both happiness and distress with loved ones, and a sense of loving and being loved are included. The physical aspects of intimacy such as hugging and touch are also included. It is acknowledged, however, that this facet is likely to overlap considerably with the intimacy of sex that is covered in the facet Sexual activity.

The questions include how much satisfaction a person gets from, or has problems managing the burdens of caring for others. The possibility of this being both a positive as well as a negative experience is implicit to the facet.

This facet addresses all types of loving relationships, such as close friendships, marriages and both heterosexual and homosexual partnerships.

14. Social support

This facet examines how much a person feels the commitment, approval and availability of practical assistance from family and friends. Questions explore how much family and friends share in responsibility and work together to solve personal and family problems. The facet’s focus is on how much the person feels he/she has the support of family and friends, in particular to what extent he/she might depend on this support in a crisis.

This includes how much the person feels he/she receives approval and encouragement from family and friends. The potentially negative role of family and friends in a person’s life is included in this facet and questions are framed to allow negative effects of family and friends such as verbal and physical abuse to be recorded.

15. Sexual activity

This facet concerns a person’s urge and desire for sex, and the extent to which the person is able to express and enjoy his/her sexual desire appropriately.

Sexual activity and intimacy are for many people intertwined. Questions, however, enquire only about sex drive, sexual expression and sexual fulfilment, with other forms of physical intimacy being covered elsewhere. In some cultures fertility is central to this facet, and child bearing is an extremely valued role. This facet incorporates this aspect of sex in these cultures, and is likely to be interpreted in these terms in these cultures. Questions do not include the value judgements surrounding sex, and address only the relevance of sexual activity to a person’s quality of life. Thus the person’s sexual orientation and sexual practices are not seen as important in and of themselves: rather it is the desire for, expression of, opportunity for and fulfilment from sex that is the focus of this facet.

It is acknowledged that sexual activity is difficult to ask about, and it is likely that responses to these questions in some cultures may be more guarded. It is further anticipated that people of different ages and different gender will answer these questions differently. Some respondents may report little or no desire for sex without this having any adverse effects on their quality of life.

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