General Guidelines for Methodologies on Research and Evaluation of Traditional Medicine
(2000; 80 pages) [French] [Spanish] View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentForeword
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction
Open this folder and view contents1. Methodologies for Research and Evaluation of Herbal Medicines
Open this folder and view contents2. Methodologies for Research and Evaluation of Traditional Procedure-Based Therapies
Open this folder and view contents3. Clinical Research
Open this folder and view contents4. Other Issues and Considerations
View the documentReferences
Open this folder and view contentsAnnexes
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex I. Guidelines for the Assessment of Herbal Medicinesa
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex II. Research Guidelines for Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Medicinesa
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex III. Report of a WHO Consultation on Traditional Medicine and AIDS: Clinical Evaluation of Traditional Medicines and Natural Productsa
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex IV. Definition of Levels of Evidence and Grading of Recommendationa
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex V. Guidelines for Levels and Kinds of Evidence to Support Claims for Therapeutic Goodsa
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex VI. Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice (GCP) for Trials on Pharmaceutical Productsa
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex VII. Guidance for Industry: Significant Scientific Agreement in the Review of Health Claims for Conventional Foods and Dietary Supplementsa
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex VIII. Guideline for Good Clinical Practicea
Close this folderAnnex IX. WHO QOL (Quality of Life) User Manual: Facet Definitions and Response Scalesa
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentOverall Quality of Life and Health
View the documentDomain I - Physical Domain
View the documentDomain II - Psychological
View the documentDomain III - Level of Independence
View the documentDomain IV - Social Relationships
View the documentDomain V - Environment
View the documentDomain VI - Spirituality/Religion/Personal Beliefs
View the documentResponse Scales
View the documentAnnex X. Participants in the WHO Consultation on Methodologies for Research and Evaluation of Traditional Medicine
 

Domain II - Psychological

4. Positive feelings

This facet examines how much a person experiences positive feelings of contentment, balance, peace, happiness, hopefulness, joy and enjoyment of the good things in life. A person’s view of, and feelings about the future are seen as an important part of this facet. For many respondents this facet may be regarded as synonymous with quality of life. Negative feelings are not included as these are covered elsewhere.

5. Thinking, learning, memory and concentration

This facet explores a person’s view of his/her thinking, learning, memory, concentration and ability to make decisions. This incorporates the speed of thinking and clarity of thought. Questions disregard whether a person is alert, aware or awake, even though these underlie thinking, memory and concentration. It is acknowledged that some people with cognitive difficulties may have no insight into their difficulties, and in these cases proxy evaluations may be a necessary addition to the person’s subjective evaluation. A similar problem may be a reluctance to admit to problems in this area among some respondents.

6. Self-esteem

This facet examines how people feel about themselves. This might range from feeling positive about themselves to feeling extremely negative about themselves. A person’s sense of worth as a person is explored. The aspect of self esteem concerned with a person’s feeling of self-efficacy, satisfaction with oneself and control is also included in the focus of this facet.

Questions are likely to include people’s feelings about themselves in a range of areas: how they are able to get along with other people; their education; their appraisal of their ability to change or accomplish particular tasks or behaviours; their family relations; and their sense of dignity and self-acceptance. To some people self-esteem depends largely on how they function, whether at work, at home or how they are perceived and treated by others. In some cultures self-esteem is the esteem felt within the family rather than individual self-esteem. It is assumed that questions will be interpreted by respondents in ways that are meaningful and relevant to their position in life.

Questions do not include specific references to body image and social relationships as these are covered in different areas. However, the sense of self-worth that comes from these areas is intended to be covered by the questions though at a more general level. It is acknowledged that some people may find self-esteem difficult to talk about, and questions are framed trying to take this into account.

7. Body image and appearance

This facet examines the person’s view of his/her body. Whether the appearance of the body is seen in a positive or negative way is included in this facet. The focus is on the person’s satisfaction with the way he/she looks and the effect it has on his/her self-concept. This includes the extent to which “perceived” or actual bodily impairments, if present, can be corrected (e.g. by make-up, clothing, artificial limbs, etc.).

How others respond to a person’s appearance is likely to affect the person’s body image very considerably. The phrasing of the questions aims to encourage respondents to answer how they really feel rather than how they feel they should respond. In addition they are phrased so as to be able to include a person who is happy with the way they look as well as someone who is severely physically handicapped.

8. Negative feelings

This facet concerns how much a person experiences negative feelings, including despondency, guilt, sadness, tearfulness, despair, nervousness, anxiety and a lack of pleasure in life. The facet includes a consideration of how distressing any negative feelings are and their impact on the person’s day-to-day functioning. Questions are framed so as to include people with quite disabling psychological difficulties such as severe depression, mania or panic attacks.

Questions do not include poor concentration, nor the relationship between negative affect and the person’s social relationships because these are covered elsewhere. Nor do questions include any detailed assessment of the severity of the negative feelings.

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