Globalization and Access to Drugs. Perspectives on the WTO/TRIPS Agreement - Health Economics and Drugs Series, No. 007 (Revised)
(1998; 97 pages) [French] [Spanish] View the PDF document
Table of Contents
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentAbbreviations and acronyms
Close this folderPART I: GLOBALIZATION AND ACCESS TO DRUGS: IMPLICATIONS OF THE WTO/TRIPS AGREEMENT
View the documentExecutive summary
View the documentIntroduction
Close this folder1. Brief historical background to the international trading system
View the document1.1 The simultaneous creation of the GATT, the IMF and the World Bank
Close this folder1.2 The objectives, nature and functioning of the GATT
View the documentObjectives
View the documentNature
View the documentObligations of the contracting parties
View the documentThe “Rounds”
Open this folder and view contents1.3 The Uruguay Round and the creation of the WTO
View the document1.4 The protection of intellectual property rights before the WTO
Open this folder and view contents2. Reading the TRIPS Agreement from the perspective of access to drugs
Open this folder and view contents3. Conclusions: issues at stake and constraints on access to drugs
View the documentDefinitions and terminology4
Open this folder and view contentsSelected bibliography5
Open this folder and view contentsPART II: PRESENTATIONS AT THE AD HOC WORKING GROUP ON THE REVISED DRUG STRATEGY HELD IN GENEVA ON 13 OCTOBER 1998
View the documentOther documents in the DAP - Health Economics and Drugs Series
View the documentBack cover
 
The “Rounds”

As the essential objective of the GATT was to promote continuing liberalization of international trade, it was necessary to institute a procedure to enable the contracting parties to negotiate in this area. Therefore, rounds of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) were instigated, during which the tariff concessions accorded by one party to another were generalized to all parties by means of the most-favoured-nation clause.

Overall, the earlier rounds of negotiations from 1947 to 1961 led to very substantial reductions in customs duties between the countries concerned.

The Kennedy Round, which lasted from 1964 to 1967, led to a further decrease in customs duties on a basis of a formula, and to the negotiation of an agreement on anti-dumping practices. But the contracting parties were not able to agree on the idea of a linear reduction in customs duties or on the problem of non-tariff* barriers which also constituted barriers to trade.

It was at the Tokyo Round (1973-1979) that most of the agreements on non-tariff barriers were eventually signed: technical barriers to trade, government procurement, subsidies, customs valuation, import licences and anti-dumping practices.

to previous section
to next section
 
 
The WHO Essential Medicines and Health Products Information Portal was designed and is maintained by Human Info NGO. Last updated: June 25, 2014